Wednesday, August 22, 2007

Monopoly Board Game

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Monopoly (game)











Players make their way around the Monopoly board, such as this German one.



Monopoly is the best-selling commercial board game in the world. Players compete to acquire wealth through stylized economic activity involving the buying, rental and trading of properties using play money, as players take turns moving around the board according to the roll of the dice. The game is named after the economic concept of monopoly, the domination of a market by a single provider.



It is published by Parker Brothers, an imprint of Hasbro. According to Hasbro, since Charles Darrow patented the game in 1935, approximately 750 million people have played the game, making it "the most played [commercial] board game in the world."[1] The 1999 Guinness Book of Records cited Hasbro's previous statistic of 500 million people having played Monopoly.[2] Games Magazine has inducted Monopoly into its Hall of Fame.[3]




History




Main article: History of the board game Monopoly




The history of Monopoly can be traced back to the early 1900s. In 1904, an inventor named Elizabeth Magie patented a game through which she hoped to be able to explain some of the economic ideas of Henry George. The original intention of the game was to demonstrate the unfairness of monopolies. Her game, The Landlord's Game, was commercially published a few years later. Magie and other interested game players redeveloped the game and some made their own sets. Magie herself patented a revised edition of the game in 1924, and similar games were published commercially. By the early 1930s a board game named Monopoly was created much like the version of Monopoly sold by Parker Brothers and its parent companies through the rest of the 20th century and into the 21st. Several different people, mostly in the U.S. Midwest and near the U.S. East Coast, contributed to the game's design and evolution.


By the 1970s, the game's early history had been lost (and at least one historian has argued that it was purposely suppressed - see below), and the idea that it had been created solely by Charles Darrow had become popular folklore. This was stated in the 1974 book The Monopoly Book: Strategy and Tactics of the World's Most Popular Game, by Maxine Brady, and even in the instructions of the game itself. As Professor Ralph Anspach fought Parker Brothers and their then parent company, General Mills, over the trademarks of the Monopoly board game, much of the early history of the game was "rediscovered."



Because of the lengthy court process, and appeals, the legal status of Parker Brothers' trademarks on the game was not settled until the mid-1980s. The game's name remains a registered trademark of Parker Brothers, as do its specific design elements. Parker Brothers' current corporate parent, Hasbro, again only acknowledges the role of Charles Darrow in the creation of the game. Anspach published a book about his researches, called The Billion Dollar Monopoly Swindle (and republished as Monopolygate), in which he makes his case about the purposeful suppression of the game's early history and development.



Rich Uncle Pennybags





Main article: Rich Uncle Pennybags



The game's official mascot is Rich Uncle Pennybags, who first appeared on the game's Chance and Community Chest cards in 1936. Since 1985, he appears on the second "O" in the word Monopoly as part of their logo. Hasbro officially rechristened the character Mr. Monopoly in 1998.




Board



Atlantic City version


This is the original version produced by Charles Darrow, and later by Parker Brothers. The board consists of 40 spaces containing 28 properties, 3 "Chance" spaces, 3 "Community Chest" spaces, a "Luxury Tax" space, an "Income Tax" space, "GO," "Jail," "Free Parking," and "Go To Jail." In the U.S. version shown below, the properties are named after locations in (or near) Atlantic City, New Jersey.








































































































Standard (American Edition) Monopoly game board layout [ v d e ]
Free ParkingKentucky Avenue


($220)
ChanceIndiana Avenue

($220)
Illinois Avenue

($240)
B&O Railroad

($200)
Atlantic Avenue

($260)
Ventnor Avenue

($260)
Water Works

($150)
Marvin Gardens

($280)
Go To Jail






New York Avenue

($200)

Monopoly
Pacific Avenue

($300)
Tennessee Avenue

($180)


North Carolina Avenue

($300)
Community ChestCommunity Chest
St. James Place

($180)


Pennsylvania Avenue

($320)
Pennsylvania Railroad

($200)
Short Line

($200)
Virginia Avenue

($160)

Chance
States Avenue

($140)


Park Place

($350)
Electric Company


($150)
Luxury Tax

(Pay $75)
St. Charles Place

($140)


Boardwalk

($400)
Jail

Chance
Reading Railroad

($200)
Income Tax

(Pay 10% or $200)

Community Chest
⇐ GO
Connecticut Avenue

($120)
Vermont Avenue

($100)
Oriental Avenue


($100)
Baltic Avenue

($60)
Mediterranean Avenue

($60)

A player who reaches the "Jail" space by a direct roll of the dice is said to be "just visiting," and continues normal play on the next turn.


Note that Marvin Gardens, a Yellow property on the above board, is actually a misspelling of the original location name, Marven Gardens. Marven Gardens is not a street, but a housing area outside Atlantic City. The housing area is said to be derived from MARgate City and VENtnor City in New Jersey (emphasis added). The misspelling was originally introduced by Charles Todd, whose home-made Monopoly board was copied by Charles Darrow and subsequently used as the basis of the design by Parker Brothers. It was not until 1995 that Parker Brothers acknowledged this mistake and formally apologized to the residents of Marven Gardens for the misspelling.[4] Another change made by Todd and duplicated by Darrow, and later Parker Brothers, was the use of South Carolina Avenue. North Carolina Avenue was substituted for this street on the board.



Atlantic City's Illinois Avenue was renamed Martin Luther King, Jr. Blvd. in the 1980s. Saint Charles Place no longer exists, as the Showboat Casino Hotel was developed where it once ran.[5]


Short Line is believed to refer to the Shore Fast Line, a streetcar line that served Atlantic City.[6] The B&O Railroad did not serve Atlantic City. A booklet included with the reprinted 1935 edition states that the four railroads that served Atlantic City in the mid-1930s were the Jersey Central, the Seashore Lines, the Reading Railroad, and the Pennsylvania Railroad. Atlantic City does not have a "Water Works" — its water is piped in from the New Jersey "mainland" through two pipes.



The other versions of the game have different property names, and the prices may be denominated in another currency, but the game mechanics are almost identical. The income tax choice from the U.S. version is replaced by a flat rate in the UK version, and the $75 Luxury Tax space is replaced with the £100 Super Tax space. The same is true of current German boards, with a €200 for the Income Tax space on the board, and a €100 Zusatzsteuer (Add-on tax) in place of the Luxury Tax. An Austrian version, released by Parker Brothers/Hasbro in 2001, does allow for the 10% or $200 for Income Tax and has a $100 Luxury Tax. Free passes may be issued if owner of property is using free passes as a transaction.

London version

In the 1930s, John Waddington Ltd. (Waddingtons) was a firm of printers from Leeds that had begun to branch out into packaging and the production of playing cards. Waddingtons had sent the card game Lexicon to Parker Brothers hoping to interest them in publishing the game in the United States. In a similar fashion Parker Brothers sent over a copy of Monopoly to Waddingtons early in 1935 before the game had been put into production in the United States.

The managing director of Waddingtons, Victor Watson, gave the game to his son Norman (who was head of the card games division) to test over the weekend. Norman was impressed by the game and persuaded his father to call Parker Brothers on Monday morning - transatlantic calls then being almost unheard of. This call resulted in Waddingtons obtaining a license to produce and market the game outside of the United States. Watson felt that in order for the game to be a success in the United Kingdom the American locations would have to be replaced, so Victor and his secretary, Marjory Phillips, went to London to scout out locations. The Angel, Islington is not a street in London but an area of North London named after a coaching inn that stood on the Great North Road. By the 1930s the inn had become a Lyons Corner House (it is now a Co-operative Bank). Some accounts say that Marjory and Victor met at the Angel to discuss the selection and celebrated the fact by including it on the Monopoly board. In 2003, a plaque commemorating the naming was unveiled at the site by Victor Watson's grandson who is also named Victor.u เกมส์ bleach เกม เย็นตาโฟ เกม winning 11 เกมส์ชินจัง เกมส์ บ้าน เกมส์ บาร์บี้ online เกมส์แต่งตัวออนไล เกมนิจา เกมก้านกล้าย เกมส์ยิงปีน เกมส์ เปลี่ยน 240 x 320 เกมส์เย็บผ้า เกมค็อกเทล เกมส์แข่งฟุตบอล เกมเครื่องบิน 747 เกมส์ขายไอศครีม

The standard British board, produced by Waddingtons, was for many years the version most familiar to people in countries in the Commonwealth (except Canada, where the U.S. edition with Atlantic City-area names was reprinted), although local variants of the board are now also found in several of these countries such as New Zealand (see Localized versions of the Monopoly game).

In the cases where the game was produced under license by a national company, the £ (pound) was replaced by a $ (dollar) sign, but the place names were unchanged.








































































































Standard (British Edition) Monopoly game board layout [ v d e ]
Free ParkingStrand (£220)ChanceFleet Street (£220)Trafalgar Square (£240)Fenchurch Street station (£200)Leicester Square (£260)Coventry Street (£260)Water Works (£150)Piccadilly (£280)Go To Jail






Vine Street (£200)


Regent Street (£300)
Marlborough Street (£180)

Oxford Street (£300)
Community ChestCommunity Chest
Bow Street (£180)

Bond Street (£320)
Marylebone station (£200)Liverpool Street station (£200)
Northumberland Avenue (£160)
Chance
Whitehall (£140)

Park Lane (£350)
Electric Company (£150)Super Tax

(Pay £100)
Pall Mall (£140)

Mayfair (£400)
Jail

Chance
King's Cross station (£200)Income Tax (Pay £200)
Community Chest
⇐ GO
Pentonville Road (£120)Euston Road (£100)The Angel Islington (£100)Whitechapel Road (£60)Old Kent Road (£60)

For a list of some of the localized versions, including the UK "Here & Now" edition, and the names of their properties, see localized versions of the Monopoly game.




Here and Now Editions



United States

The U.S. version of the "Here and Now Edition" replaces Atlantic City landmarks with legendary U.S. streets, neighborhoods and national monuments. Fans were able to vote on the U.S. Monopoly website for their favorite landmarks from 22 cities – including New York's Times Square, Chicago's Wrigley Field, Honolulu's Waikiki Beach, Bloomington's Mall of America, Beverly Hills' Rodeo Drive, Nashville's Grand Ole Opry, Phoenix's Camelback Mountain, Boston's Fenway Park and San Francisco's Golden Gate Bridge. Additionally, the votes determined where each landmark appears on the game board; the city with the most votes landing on the coveted Boardwalk spot. The railroads were replaced by airports, namely, New York's JFK, Chicago's O'Hare, Los Angeles' LAX and Atlanta's Hartsfield-Jackson. Property values have been increased, money is in higher denominations, and the Community Chest and Chance cards reflect more modern scenarios. Tokens in the new game include a box of McDonald's french fries, a cup of Starbucks coffee, a Toyota Prius, a New Balance tennis shoe, a Motorola RAZR cellular phone, an airplane, a labradoodle and a laptop.[7] A version for Microsoft Windows based on the same board was also released on CD-ROM, produced by Encore, Inc. There is also an Atari downloadable version for cell phones.




Germany

A German edition called Monopoly Heute (Monopoly Today) was released in 2005, with updated properties in Berlin.



France

The French edition called Monopoly - Nouveau plateau was released in 2005, with updated properties in Paris.




Australia

The Australian edition followed a nomination process similar to the American edition, though with Premiers making the nominations to Hasbro. Votes were cast to decide not only which landmarks from each state would qualify for the board but to decide the order that the states would be placed. The order from most expensive propities, to least expensive properties is: SA, WA, Vic, Tas, NSW, NT, ACT, QLD [8][9] The set was released in June 2007, voting was between January 8 - February 10 online.[10]



Canada

A Here and Now Limited Edition has been released in Canada around the same time as that of the US version. It includes landmarks such as Niagara Falls, Percé Rock and Yorkville.[11]




Norway

The Norwegian "Here and Now Edition" replaced bank notes with ATM cards, and updated prices. Fans were invited to vote for which Oslo streets were to be included in the game. The edition was released in spring 2006.



New Zealand

A New Zealand "Here and Now Edition" was voted on at a special website early in 2007. Voting finished on 10 February 2007, with a release date to be set in June 2007. The inital release was a success and sales are stable..[12]



A voting poster for County Louth, Ireland



A voting poster for County Louth, Ireland




Ireland

An all-Ireland "Here and Now Edition" is currently being voted on at a special website.[13] The results will be made public online in early October.



United Kingdom


In 2005, Hasbro launched the UK version of the "Here and Now Limited Edition," updating the properties and prices to reflect present-day London properties. The playing pieces were also changed to be: Mobile phone, Roller blade, Hamburger, Jumbo Jet, Racing Car, Skateboard and London Bus. This version was launched in recognition of the game's 70th anniversary in conjunction with an online version.



In 2007 it was announced that Hasbro would publish a second "Here and Now Edition", featuring UK cities, following a selection process similar to the U.S. edition, listed below.[14]


Currently the top ten on the leaderboard are as follows -


1 - Cambridge


2 - St Albans


3 - Sheffield



4 - Exeter


5 - Dundee


6 - Stoke-On-Trent


7 - Keele


8 - Oxford


9 - Nottingham



10 - Norwich


Many well known locations are much further down the board - for example, Cardiff takes 13th place, London 14th, Edinburgh makes 27th place, and Northern Ireland's capital Belfast reaches 56th, meaning that none of the capitals of the UK's four constituent countries reach the top ten.


As well as the option to vote for major cities, there is the choice of voting for smaller towns or villages, known as wild card locations. On the board below, wild card locations are asterisked. The top 5 wild card locations are as follows -bomberman เกมส์แต่งตัวปาร์ตี้คริสต์มาส เกมส์ แต่งภาพ เกมที่มันที่สุด เกมร็อคแมน เกมส์อัฉริยะ เกมส์มือถือ n70 เกมส์นักแม่นปืน เกมแต่งตัว ออนไลน์ เกมเศษรฐี เกมสนุกเกอ เกมส์แต่งตัวอื่นๆ เกมตกผู้หญิง เกมวิ่งเเข่ง เกม เเต่งตัว เกมส์ดารก้อนบอล เกมส์ cash flow เกมแก่ผ้า เกม dot-a เกม ปาแมน เกมส์แต่งตัวสุ


1 - Keele (place number 7)


2 - Middlesbrough (place number 11)



3 - Burgess Hill (place number 12)


4 - Colchester (place number 13)


5 - Ashton Gate (place number 25 - not on gameboard)


[1] (all information accurate at 18:56 GMT 18th May 2007)



Keele, while being a small village of population less than 4000, managed to get high up on the leaderboard and at one point, the top position, thanks to the local university named after it. One student at the university, with help from others, rallied the student and staff population together to get Keele on the new board. The cause was called "Keele on the Monopoly Map", and e-mails quickly were being sent around the campus email system. Keele University has a combined student and staff population of just over 13,000.

Debit Card versions

A "Here and Now Electronic Banking Edition" was released in the United Kingdom in 2006, which includes an ATM and Visa debit cards in place of paper money.[15] Australia and Taiwan also distribute the UK Debit Card version.[16] A similar edition is available in Germany, France and Sweden where they are known as "Monopoly Banking," "Monopoly Electronique" and "Monopol Här & Nu-utgåvan" respectively. At the Toy Fair 2007 convention, Hasbro announced that the "Electronic Banking Edition" will appear in the United States later in 2007, along with a special DVD version.[17] As of August 2007, the Electronic Banking Edition is available in stores.เกมส์อาบะเรนเจอร์ กำเนิดเกมส์ เกมยิงเป้า เกมเล่นง่ายๆ เกมส์rpg เกมส์สลาพ เกมส์นรสิงห์ เกมส์เดอะซิมส์ 2 เกมสนุกเกอร์ 3d เกมแต่งภาพ โกงเกมส์ sf เกมส์ออก เกมส์ยอดนิยม เกมส์คณิตศาตร์ เกมผีสิง เกมส์มิกกี้เมาส์ เกมร้าน เกมส์ยิงลูกโป่ง เกมอันตราย เกม console เกมส์ ปลูกต้นไม้ เกมส์รถแข่ง 1000เกมส์

Equipment

Each player is represented by a small metal token that is moved around the edge of the board according to the roll of two dice. The twelve playing pieces currently used are pictured at left (from left to right): a wheelbarrow (1937b edition), a battleship, a sack of money (1999 editions onwards), a horse and rider, a car, a train (Deluxe Edition only), a thimble, a cannon (1937b edition), an old style shoe (sometimes known as "the boot"), a Scottie dog, an iron, and a top hat.

Many of the tokens came from companies such as Dowst Miniature Toy Company, which made metal charms and tokens designed to be used on charm bracelets. The battleship and cannon were also used briefly in the Parker Brothers war game Conflict (released in 1940), but after the game failed on the market, the premade pieces were recycled into Monopoly usage.[18] Hasbro recently adopted the battleship and cannon for Diplomacy.


Early localized editions of the standard edition (including some Canadian editions, which used the U.S. board layout) did not include pewter tokens but instead had generic wooden head-shaped tokens identical to those in Sorry!.[19] Parker Brothers also acquired Sorry! in the 1930s. Plastic versions of these tokens can be seen in the German Monopoly set pictured at the beginning of this article.




Other items included in the standard edition are:



The dice in the UK were replaced with a spinner because of a lack of materials during World War II
The dice in the UK were replaced with a spinner because of a lack of materials during World War II
  • A pair of six-sided dice.
  • A Title Deed for each property. A Title Deed is given to a player to signify ownership, and specifies purchase price, mortgage value, the cost of building houses and hotels on that property, and the various rent prices depending on how developed the property is. Properties include:
    • 22 streets, divided into 8 color groups of two or three streets. A player must own all of a color group (have a monopoly) in order to build houses or hotels. A player can also be considered to have a monopoly by having both utilities and/or all four railroads (or stations) during gameplay. However, the utilities and railroads cannot be improved or have houses and/or hotels built on them. If a player wants to mortgage one property of a color-group, not only must any houses or hotels be removed from that property, but from the others in the color-group as well.
    • 4 railways/stations. Players collect higher rent if they own more than one railway. Hotels and houses cannot be built on railways. These are usually replaced by railway stations in non-U.S. editions of Monopoly.
    • 2 utilities. Players collect higher rent if they own both utilities. Hotels and houses cannot be built on utilities.
  • A supply of paper money. The supply of money is theoretically unlimited; if the bank runs out of money the players must make do with other markers, or calculate on paper. Additional paper money can be bought at certain locations, notably game and hobby stores. In U.S. standard editions, the supply generally starts with $15,140. (The winner of the quadrennial Monopoly World Championship receives the same amount in United States dollars.)
  • 32 wooden or plastic houses and 12 wooden or plastic hotels. (The original and the current "Deluxe Edition" have wooden houses and hotels; the current "base set" uses plastic buildings.) Unlike money, houses and hotels have a finite supply. If no more are available, no substitute is allowed.
  • A deck of 16 Chance cards and a deck of 16 Community Chest cards. Players draw these cards when they land on the corresponding squares of the track, and follow the instructions printed on them.

Hasbro also sells a Deluxe Edition, which is mostly identical to the classic edition but has wooden houses and hotels and gold-toned tokens, including one token in addition to the standard eleven, a railroad locomotive. Other additions to the Deluxe Edition include a card carousel, which holds the title deed cards, and money printed with two colors of ink.

In 1978, retailer Neiman Marcus manufactured and sold an all-Chocolate edition of Monopoly through their "Christmas Wish Book" for that year. The entire set was edible, including the money, dice, hotels, properties, tokens and playing board. The set retailed for US$600.[21]


In 2000, the F.A.O. Schwarz store in New York City sold a custom version called "One-Of-A-Kind Monopoly" for US$100,000.[22] This special edition comes in a locking attaché case made with Napolino leather and lined in suede, and features include:

  • 18-carat (75%) gold tokens, houses and hotels
  • Rosewood board
  • street names written in gold leaf
  • emeralds around the Chance icon
  • sapphires around the Community Chest
  • rubies in the brake lights of the car on the Free Parking Space
  • the money is real, negotiable United States currency

The Guinness Book of World Records states that a set worth US$2,000,000 and made of 23-carat gold, with rubies and sapphires atop the chimneys of the houses and hotels, is the most expensive Monopoly set ever produced.[23]



Rules



Each player begins the game with his/her token on the Go square, and $1500 (£1500, €1500, etc.) in cash divided as follows, per the U.S. standard rules:



  • 2 each of:

    • $500 bills

    • $100 bills

    • $50 bills



  • 6 $20 bills

  • 5 each of:


    • $10 bills

    • $5 bills

    • $1 bills




The British version has an initial cash distribution of:



  • 2 x £500

  • 4 x £100

  • 1 x £50


  • 1 x £20

  • 2 x £10

  • 1 x £5

  • 5 x £1


Classic German editions (i.e., those pre-Euro) started with 30,000 "Spielmark" in eight denominations (abbreviated "M."), and later used seven denominations of the "Deutsche Mark" ("DM."). In the classic Italian game, each player receives £350,000 ($3500) in a two-player game, but £50,000 ($500) less for each player more than two. Only in a six-player game does a player receive the equivalent of $1500. The classic Italian games were played with only four denominations of currency. At least one Spanish edition (the Barcelona edition) started the game with 150,000 in play money, with a breakdown identical to that of the American version.


All property deeds, houses, and hotels are held by the bank until bought by the players. Free passes may be issued if owner of property is using free passes as a transaction.



Official rules





Wikibooks


Wikibooks has more about this subject:
Monopoly/Official Rules



Players take turns in order, with the initial player determined by chance before the game. The players all roll dice and whoever is the highest roller typically takes the first turn. After the first person is determined the players take turns by moving in a normal counterclockwise fashion. A typical turn begins with the rolling of two dice and advancing clockwise around the board the corresponding number of squares. Landing on Chance or Community Chest, a player draws the top card from the respective pile. If the player lands on an unowned property, whether street, railroad or utility, he can buy the property for its listed purchase price. If he declines this purchase, the property is auctioned off by the bank to the highest bidder. If the property landed on is already owned and unmortgaged, he must pay the owner a given rent, the price dependent on whether the property is part of a monopoly or its level of development. If a player rolls doubles, he rolls again after completing his turn. Three sets of doubles in a row, however, land the player in jail. During a turn, players may also choose to develop or mortgage properties. Development involves the construction, for given amounts of money paid to the bank, of houses or hotels. Development must be uniform across a monopoly, e.g., a second house cannot be built on one property in a monopoly until the others have one house. All developments must be sold before a property can be mortgaged. The player receives money from the bank for each mortgaged property, which must be repaid with interest to unmortgage.

House rules


Wikibooks


Wikibooks has more about this subject:
Monopoly/House Rules

Parker Brothers' official instructions have long encouraged the use of house rules, specific additions to or subtractions from the official rule sets. Many casual Monopoly players are surprised and disappointed to discover that some of the rules that they are used to are not part of the official rules. Many of these house rules tend to make the game longer by giving players more money. Some common house rules are listed below and many more can be found via links at the end of this article)

  • Free Parking jackpot, which usually consists of an initial stake (typically $500) plus collections of fines and taxes otherwise paid to the bank. A player who lands on Free Parking wins the jackpot, which may then be reset with the initial stake (if any). The jackpot is usually put in the center of the board. Since the jackpot forms an additional "income" for players in this set of house rules, games can take a much longer time than under normal rules.[24]

  • Players in jail cannot collect rent, build houses or conduct trades. This can be combined with increasing the price to get out of jail considerably (normally to $500). Together, these rules make jail a far more significant burden than that listed in the normal rules.[24]

  • A bonus for landing directly on GO by dice roll (commonly an additional $200). This may or may not include cards that send the player to GO.[24]

  • Delayed Start: Players must pass GO (or circle the board at least once) before they can buy property.[24]

  • A bonus for rolling snake eyes (a pair of ones), often $100 or $500.[25][26]


  • All properties are handed out evenly to all players before the game begins, or one or two are dealt to each player. (This variation is in the official US and UK rules as a short game option.)

  • In trades, players may offer "free rides" from their own properties (someone does not have to pay rent for landing on that property) as part of a deal.[24]


House rules, while unofficial, are not wholly unrecognized by Parker Brothers. George S. Parker himself created two variants, to shorten the length of game play. Video game and computer game versions of Monopoly have options where popular house rules can be used. House rules that have the effect of introducing more money into the game have a side-effect of increasing the time it takes for players to become bankrupt, lengthening the game considerably.



Strategy





Wikibooks


Wikibooks has more about this subject:
Monopoly/Strategy



Monopoly involves a substantial portion of luck, with the roll of the dice determining whether a player gets to own key properties or lands on squares with high rents. Even the initial misfortune of going last is a significant disadvantage because one is more likely to land on property which has already been bought and therefore be forced to pay rent instead of having an opportunity to buy unowned property. There are, however, many strategic decisions which allow skilled players to win more often than the unskilled.



Property square probabilities



The layout of the "special" squares on the board (that is, the non-property squares), as well as the dice-roll probabilities, mean that not all squares have an equal probability of being landed upon.เกมส์อาบะเรนเจอร์ กำเนิดเกมส์ เกมยิงเป้า เกมเล่นง่ายๆ เกมส์rpg เกมส์สลาพ เกมส์นรสิงห์ เกมส์เดอะซิมส์ 2 เกมสนุกเกอร์ 3d เกมแต่งภาพ โกงเกมส์ sf เกมส์ออก เกมส์ยอดนิยม เกมส์คณิตศาตร์ เกมผีสิง เกมส์มิกกี้เมาส์ เกมร้าน เกมส์ยิงลูกโป่ง เกมอันตราย เกม console เกมส์ ปลูกต้นไม้ เกมส์รถแข่ง 1000เกมส์ การติดเ


According to the laws of probability, seven is the most probable roll of two dice, occurring 6 out of 36 times whereas 2 and 12 are the least probable rolls, each occurring once every 36 rolls. For this reason, Park Place/Park Lane is one of the least landed-on squares as the square seven places behind it is "Go to Jail".


Also when you are in jail, you are likely to get out by rolling a double only one in every six rolls. A "Get Out of Jail Free" card can be sold to any other player.


In consequence, some properties are landed upon more than others and the owners of those properties get more income from rent. The board layout factors include the following:



  • Jail: Since players are frequently directed to "Go To Jail," they will move through the purple, orange and red property groups immediately after leaving Jail. The two properties with the highest probability of being landed upon after leaving jail are the two cheaper orange properties (St James Place and Tennessee Avenue in North America, Bow Street and Marlborough Street outside North America). This makes the orange property set highly lucrative.


  • Go to…: One square — Go To Jail — plus a number of Chance and Community Chest cards will cause the player to advance a distance around the board. Thus, the squares immediately following Go To Jail and the take-a-card squares have a reduced probability of being landed upon. The least-landed upon property in this situation is the cheaper dark blue property (Park Place or Park Lane) because it sits in the lee of both Go to Jail and Community Chest (the Chance directly before it would not affect its odds because it is impossible to roll a one).


  • Go to (property): Several properties are blessed with Chance cards which draw players to them. St Charles Place (Pall Mall), Illinois Avenue (Trafalgar Square), Boardwalk (Mayfair), all of the railroads except Short Line (Liverpool Street Station), and both of the utilities benefit from this feature. Reading Railroad (King's Cross Station) has the fortune of having both a "go to" dedicated card plus the card advancing to the nearest railroad.


  • Advance to Go: A player may be directed to the Go square by a Chance or a Community Chest card, thus lowering the probability of being landed-upon of every square in-between. The properties most affected by this are the yellow, green, and dark blue sets. It also marginally raises the probability for each square in the wake of Go, including the purple and orange sets which will be reached two or three rolls after being on Go.

  • Go Back Three Spaces: This directive comes from a Chance card. A quick look at the board shows that there are three Chance squares and hence three other squares which are 3 spaces behind (one being a Community Chest space, another being Income Tax, and the third being the leading orange property). The leading orange property (New York Avenue or Vine Street) gains the most benefit from this card since the Chance square nestled amongst the red properties is itself the most landed-upon Chance square.



In all, during game play, Illinois Avenue (Trafalgar Square), New York Avenue (Vine Street), B&O Railroad (Fenchurch Street Station), and Reading Railroad (King's Cross Station) are the most frequently landed-upon properties. Mediterranean Avenue (Old Kent Road) and Baltic Avenue (Whitechapel ) are the least-landed-upon properties.เกมปัญญาอ่อน เกมส์ออนไลยมากมาย เกมจอมพลังสีม่วง เกมแอคชั่น เกมส์เสริฟอาหารจานด่วน เกมปรุงอาหาร เกมส๊ เกมส์ไพ่ออนไลน์ เกมมอไซ เกม บาบี้ เกมส์จ




Dealing and bargaining







?This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims.


Please help Wikipedia by adding references. See the talk page for details.


Much of the skill comes from knowing how to make the best use of a player's resources and above all knowing how to strike a good bargain. Monopoly is a social game where players often interact and must "deal" with each other in ways not unlike "real world" real estate bargaining. Note that the best deal is not always for the most expensive property; it is often situational, dependent on money resources available to each player and even where players happen to be situated on the board. When looking to deal, a player should attempt to bargain with another player who not only possess properties he or she needs but also properties the other player needs. In fact, offering relatively fair deals to other players can end up helping the player making the offer by giving him or her a reputation as an honest trader, which can make players less wary of dealings in the future. What is more, most people play Monopoly with the same group repeatedly. For this reason, such a reputation can have effects far beyond the game being played.



The end game



One common criticism of Monopoly is that it has carefully defined yet almost unreachable termination conditions. Edward P. Parker, a former president of Parker Brothers, is quoted as saying, "We always felt that forty-five minutes was about the right length for a game, but Monopoly could go on for hours. Also, a game was supposed to have a definite end somewhere. In Monopoly you kept going around and around."[28] However, the problem of time can be resolved by playing with a time limit and counting each player's net worth when the time is up. In fact, tournament play calls for a 90-minute time limit.[29] Two hour time limits are used for international play.[30] The Lord of the Rings edition gives players the option of creating a random time limit using the included One Ring token and specialized dice.



Played strictly to the rules, many games will be effectively decided when one player succeeds in bankrupting another because the bankrupt player gives all his property to the one to whom he could not pay his debt. A player who thus gains a fistful of properties will virtually control the game from that point onwards since other players will be constantly at risk. On the other hand, if a player is bankrupted by being unable to meet his debt to the bank (e.g., a fine or tax or other debt that is not rent), then his property is auctioned off; this can open up new possibilities in a game which was evenly set or in which a lot of property sets were divided among the players.


The Monopoly Mega Edition is geared towards faster play by incorporating more squares and enabling players to build without the full color-group.


Another path to a faster ending is by a key property bargain, whether it be a very shrewd trade which sets one player up with a well-positioned set or a very rash trade where an inexperienced player gives his experienced opponent an underpriced gem. Either way, a deal which pays off for one player is most often the turning point of the game.


A third way to finish the game is to wait for all of the property to be bought. Once this has occurred, the player with the most money is victorious.


Another way is to remove the £200 bonus gained by passing "Go". This ensures that players run out of money quickly.


Some players, in an attempt to lessen the huge advantage gained by the first player to bankrupt another player, have the bankrupted player pay what he can to the player he is indebted to (including the money from mortgages), and then forfeit the properties, so that they are back on the market and open to purchase by other players.


Hasbro states that the longest game of Monopoly ever played lasted 1,680 hours (70 days).[31]




Add-ons


Numerous official and unofficial add-ons have been made for Monopoly, both before its commercialization and after. Two such "official" add-ons are discussed below.



Stock Exchange


The best-known expansion to the game is the Stock Exchange Add-On, originally published by Parker Brothers in 1936 (wikibook). In the Stock Exchange add-on, the Free Parking square is replaced (covered over) with the Stock Exchange space. The add-on included three each of Chance and Community Chest cards directing the player to "Advance to Stock Exchange."



The add-on also included thirty stock certificates, five for each of the six different stocks, differing only in the purchase price (or Par Value), ranging from $100 to $150. Shares, like properties, can be considered to be tradeable material, and could also be mortgaged for half their purchase price. Shareholders could increase the value of their shares by buying up more of the same company's shares.


When a player moves onto Free Parking/Stock Exchange, stock dividends are paid out to all players with any unmortgaged shares. The amount to be paid out to each player is determined based on the number and kind of shares owned. Specifically, a player receives dividends from each stock based on the following mathematical formula:



(purchase price of share / 10) × (number of shares owned)2


EXAMPLE: Owning one share of MOTION PICTURES (purchased at $100) pays dividends of $10. Owning two shares pays $40 ($10 x 2 x 2). Three shares pays $90 ($10 x 3 x 3). Four pays $160 ($10 x 4 x 4). All five pays $250 ($10 x 5 x 5).


The player who lands on Free Parking/Stock Exchange can also choose to buy a share if any remain – should the player decline, the Bank auctions a share off to the highest bidder. The 1936 rules are ambiguous with regards to the stock that is put up for auction, and convention has it that the winner of the auction chooses the stock to be received.


The Stock Exchange add-on serves to inject more money into the game, in a similar manner to railroad properties, as well as changing the relative values of properties. In particular, the Light Purple and Orange properties are more valuable due to the increased chance of landing on Free Parking, at the expense of the Red and Yellow groups.



The Stock Exchange add-on was later redesigned and rereleased in 1992 under license by Chessex, this time including a larger number of new Chance and Community Chest cards.[32] This version included ten new Chance cards (five ADVANCE TO STOCK EXCHANGE and five other related cards) and eleven new Community Chest cards (five ADVANCE TO STOCK EXCHANGE and six other related cards; the regular Community Chest card "From sale of stock you get $45" is removed from play when using these cards). Many of the original rules applied to this new version (in fact, one optional play choice allows for playing in the original form by only adding the ADVANCE TO STOCK EXCHANGE cards to each deck).


A Monopoly Stock Exchange Edition was released in 2001 (although not in the US), this time adding an electronic calculator-like device to keep track of the complex stock figures. This was a full edition, not just an add-on, that came with its own board, money and playing pieces. Properties on the board were replaced by companies on which shares could be floated, and offices and home offices (instead of houses and hotels) could be built.[33]



Playmaster


"Playmaster," another official add-on, kept track of all player movement and dice rolls as well as what properties are still available. It then uses this information to call random auctions and mortgages that will be advantageous for some players and a punishment for others, making it easier to free up cards of a color group. It also plays eight short tunes when key game functions occur, for example when a player lands on a railroad it will play I've Been Working on the Railroad.[34]




Spinoffs



Film


On June 19, 2007, Ridley Scott announced that he was directing a comedy-thriller based on the game, featuring a variety of young actors in order to generate interest in the game. Scarlett Johannson and Kirsten Dunst have been considered so far. [2]




Computer Games


Besides the many variants of the actual game released in either video game or computer game formats, two "spin-off" computer games have been created.


Monopoly Tycoon is a PC game in the Tycoon series that makes strategy and speed into determining factors for winning the game, eliminating completely the element of luck inherent in the dice rolls of the original. The game uses the U.S. standard Atlantic City properties as its basis, but the game play is unique to this version. The game also allows for solo and multiplayer online games.


Monopoly Casino is also a PC game, simulating a casino full of Monopoly-based adaptations of various casino games (most notably, slot machines). This program was released in both standard and "Vegas" editions, each featuring unique games.



Monopoly Junior was a 1999 PC game based on the Monopoly Junior board game. It was originally available in specially-marked General Mills cereal boxes as part of a promotion with Parker Brothers, as part of the promotion, Parker Brothers released PC games based on their original games within specially-marked General Mills cereal boxes, Monopoly Junior being the most featured PC game. After its promotional phase, the game was re-released in PC-carrying game-stores.



Other Board/Dice/Card Games



Parker Brothers and its licensees have also sold several games which are spinoffs of Monopoly. These are not add-ons, as they do not function as an addition to the Monopoly game, but are simply additional games in the flavor of Monopoly.



  • Monopoly Junior board game: A simplified version of the original game for young children.

  • Advance to Boardwalk board game: Focusing mainly on building the most "hotels" along the Boardwalk.

  • Express Monopoly card game: Released by Hasbro/Parker Brothers and Waddingtons in the UK in the 1990s, now out of print. Basically a rummy-style card game based on scoring points by completing "color group" sections of the game board.

  • Monopoly: The Card Game: an updated card game released by Winning Moves Games under license from Hasbro. Similar, but decidedly more complex, gameplay to the Express Monopoly card game.


  • Free Parking card game: A more complex card game released by Parker Brothers, with several similarities to the card game Mille Bornes. Uses cards to either add "time" to "parking meters", or spend the "time" doing activities to earn points. Includes a deck of "Second Chance" cards that further alter gameplay. (Two editions were made; minor differences in card art and Second Chance cards in each edition.)

  • Don't Go To Jail: Dice Game originally released by Parker Brothers; roll combinations of dice to create "color groups" for points before rolling the words "GO" "TO" and "JAIL" (which forfeits all earned points for the turn).

  • Monopoly Express: A deluxe, travel-able edition UK re-release of Don't Go To Jail, replacing the word dice with "Officer" dice and adding a self-contained game container/dice roller & keeper.


  • Monopoly Express Casino: A gambling-themed version of the above game, that adds wagering to the gameplay.



Game Show




Main article: Monopoly (game show)




A short-lived Monopoly game show aired on Saturday evenings during the summer of 1990 on ABC. The show was produced by Wheel of Fortune and Jeopardy! creator Merv Griffin. The show was hosted by former Jeopardy! contestant Mike Reilly. Three contestants competed by answering crossword puzzle-style clues to acquire the properties on the board and money equivalent to the values of said properties (with bonuses added for getting monopolies). After the properties were acquired and players used the earned money to improve them with Houses and Hotels, a timed Monopoly Game Round was played, allowing players to earn even more money by landing on their properties and answering more word clues. When time was up, the player with the most money won the game, and then went on to play the Bonus Game. In the Bonus Game, the contestant had to choose 4 properties on the board to convert to "Go To Jail" spaces. Along with the actual "Go To Jail" space, the contestant rolled the dice up to five times (with extra rolls added for each double rolled) and had to pass GO without landing on a "Go To Jail" space. If the contestant passed GO before running out of rolls or landing on a "Go To Jail" space, they won US$25,000; however if the contestant landed EXACTLY on GO, they would win US$50,000. The show was paired on ABC with a summer long Super Jeopardy! tournament.




Gambling Games


In North America, a variety of slot machines have been produced with a Monopoly theme. In Europe, there were also Monopoly "fruit machines," some of which remain popular through emulation. The British quiz machine brand itbox also supports a Monopoly trivia and chance game, which, like most other itbox games, costs 50p (GB£0.50) to play and has a GB£20 jackpot, although this is very rarely won.




Pinball


Stern Pinball, Inc. produced a Monopoly themed and branded pinball table in 2001.



Other Games



There was also a live, online version of monopoly. Six painted taxis drive around London picking up passengers. When the taxis reach their final destination, the region of London that they are in is displayed on the online board. This version takes far longer to play than board-game monopoly, with one game lasting 24 hours. Results and position are sent to players via e-mail at the conclusion of the game.[35]



Variants


Because Monopoly evolved in the public domain before its commercialization, Monopoly has seen many variant games. Most of these are exact copies of the Monopoly games with the street names replaced with locales from a particular town, university, or fictional place. National boards have been released as well. Many of these are listed at "Localized versions of the Monopoly game". Details, including box cover art, can be seen in the "List of licensed Monopoly game boards". Over the years, many speciality Monopoly editions, licensed by Parker Brothers/Hasbro, and produced by them, or their licensees (including USAopoly and Winning Moves Games) have been sold to local and national markets worldwide. Two well known "families" of -opoly like games, without licenses from Parker Brothers/Hasbro, have also been produced.




Late for the Sky


Late for the Sky Production Company produces a huge range of Monopoly based games with similar rules and board layout as Monopoly but with a large selection of special themes. They also offer Monopoly based games based on your own theme. Major product lines of theirs include nearly sixty titles based on US college and university campuses and the City in a Box line.[36] Late for the Sky has also licensed many of their -Opoly products to Outset Media in Canada for sales there. Outset Media has also produced further games exclusively for the Canadian market that build upon the Late for the Sky product lines.




Help On Board


Help On Board is a company that specializes in creating fundraising board games for various charities. Many of these have been made in an "-opoly" style using locales within a variety of communities in the United States and Canada. Proceeds from sales of the games go to various local causes. A gallery of images of some of these fundraising board games can be seen on their website.[37]




Related games


Several published games are similar to Monopoly. These include:



  • Anti-Monopoly, written by Ralph Anspach in 1974.

  • Chômageopoly, "Unemployment Monopoly", a board game created by the Lip factory in the 1970s


  • Dinosauropoly, a version using prehistoric motifs and rules.

  • Dogopoly: The Game of High Steaks and Bones, created by Spahits Games in 1977 with a 25th anniversary edition released in 2002. Not to be confused with the Dog-opoly published by Late for the Sky.[38]

  • Easy Money, published by Milton Bradley, also in the 1930s.

  • The Farming Game is a board game in which the goal is to run a financially successful farm, and like Monopoly the heart of the game is economics. The game's website draws comparisons to Monopoly.


  • Fast Food Franchise is a board game by TimJim games which shares Monopoly's core mechanic, but through careful design guarantees that it will actually end.

  • The Fascinating Game of Finance, later shortened to Finance, first marketed in 1932 by Knapp Electric, and later by Parker Brothers.

  • Go For Broke, the exact opposite of Monopoly, has the players trying to spend all their money before anyone else. Bad bets at the casino, real estate, stock market, race track, and giving to the poor house lowers your account balance. This was a Milton Bradley game originally published in the mid-1960s.


  • Ghettopoly, released in 2003, caused considerable offense upon its release. The game, intended to be a humorous rendering of ghetto life, was decried as racist for its unflinching use of racial stereotypes, so much that Hasbro sought and received a court ordered injunction against Ghettopoly's designer.[39][40] The game and its sequel are no longer available directly from the designer's website.

  • Goonopoly, Monopoly type game created at Central Queensland University, involving players to "buy" properties around Rockhampton (including the local nightclubs) by taking shots of "Goon" (cask wine) depending on the square landed on. Developed by Chris "Pieman" Janson and Brendon "Goonlover" Brooker.


  • Itadaki Street, a series of board games for video game consoles from Enix.

  • The Mad Magazine Game, a Mad Magazine themed board game in which the object of the game is for player to lose all their money, play is counter-clockwise, and the dice must be rolled with the left hand. Released by Parker Brothers in 1979.


  • Make Your Own-opoly is a game set sold by TDC Games of Itasca, Illinois. Using a Microsoft Windows-based PC, a person can print out his or her own property cards, labels to place on the board and the box, and game currency.[41]

  • Solarquest, a popular space-age adaptation, was released by Golden in 1986.



Popular culture



This section contains a list of trivia items.

The section could be improved by integrating relevant items into the main text and removing inappropriate items.


This section has been tagged since June 2007.

Since Parker Brothers first published and marketed the board game Monopoly in 1935, it has influenced popular culture in many ways. It has been referenced in cartoons, comic strips, novels, and comedy.




  • In The Simpsons episode "Brawl in the Family", the family was playing Monopoly and Bart informs Homer that he must come up with the "rest of the money" to settle a debt. Homer states that he is "good for the rest", but Bart points out that Homer has "been in jail two times". Lisa accuses Marge of favoring Bart because he "bought" her "that house on St. James Place", while Bart states that no one else could help her, especially not Homer. This sends Homer into a rage, initiating a fight between all the family members. When the police are called, the event is referred to as "another case of Monopoly related violence..."


  • Tom Lehrer paraphrased a rule about going to Jail in his song "We Will All Go Together When We Go":



You will all go directly to your respective Valhallas;

Go directly, do not pass Go, do not collect two hundred dollars...



  • In an issue of Cracked magazine, spoofing Adolf Hitler, a variant of the game is called "Blitzkrieg," after Hitler's "lightning war" against France in World War II. As with the regular German game, the "Go" square is called "Los," and in "Blitzkrieg" you collect 200 deutschmarks, "provided all your identification papers are in order." Instead of mortgage, a title-deed card is displayed upside down "if property is surrendered to the Allies." Instead of "Jail" it uses a "POW camp"; on the board "Just Visiting" is "verboten--mach schnell!"


  • In a story in the Archie comics, Archie, Betty, Veronica, and Jughead are playing. Archie lands on a property Betty owns; the lovesick Betty refuses to charge Archie rent. As the game continues, Archie and Betty are bankrupted out of the game, leaving Veronica playing Jughead, much to her dismay. In another story, Mr. Lodge plays Monopoly with business associates. Archie sees this, and Veronica shocks Archie by telling them her Daddy and the others are playing--for real property!

  • In the movie One Flew over the Cuckoo's Nest, the inmates play Monopoly. One wants to put a house on a railroad space, insisting it's the station house; and also on Electric Company, saying "that's the power plant!"

  • In the June 28, 2007 episode of the soap opera As the World Turns, Holden Snyder accuses Craig Montgomery of using a "Get Out of Jail Free" card.


  • In an episode of The Sopranos entitled "Sopranos Home Movies", a game of Monopoly between Tony Soprano, his wife, Carmella Soprano, his sister Janice Soprano, and Bobby Baccala, a capo in the New Jersey mob, turns into a brawl after Bobby attacks Tony for insulting Janice during the game. Earlier, Bobby complains about the house rule giving whoever lands on Free Parking money collected in taxes and fees as unfair.


  • In the movie Ace Ventura: When Nature Calls, Jim Carrey's character, Ace, tells a main that he "must be the Monopoly guy", because of his uncanny resemblance (bald, white hair, moustache) to the man at the center of the Monopoly board. He then proceeds to beat him up and move the man's jaw manually while saying, "Do not pass go, do not collect 200 dollars".

  • In the movie ""Unaccompanied Minors"", a poster featuring the famous Monopoly phrase "Do not pass Go, Do not collect 200$" can be seen behind Charlie Goldfinch as the door to his "private room" is closed in his face. The private room being what appears to be a sort of interrogation room at the airport.


The game's Get Out of Jail Free card has become a popular metaphor for something that will get one out of an undesired situation.[citation needed]




See also



  • Anti-Monopoly

  • Dogopoly

  • List of licensed Monopoly game boards

  • Localized versions of the Monopoly game

  • Monopoly (game show)


  • McDonald's Monopoly

  • My Monopoly

  • Rich Uncle Pennybags, known as "Mr. Monopoly" since 1998. This mascot for the game was introduced with editions beginning in 1936, and began appearing on the game boxes and game boards in 1985.

  • Kabel – the typeface used throughout the game board and on its logo.




Notes




  1. ^ In the instruction booklet that comes with the 70th Anniversary (US) Edition of Monopoly, Hasbro cites a statistic that over 750 million people have played Monopoly. Presumably even higher numbers have played traditional games, such as chess and go.


  2. ^ Guinness World Records page for Monopoly's (disputed) world record of Most Played Game

  3. ^ GAMES Magazine Hall of Fame web page

  4. ^ Hasbro's Monopoly History page

  5. ^ Kennedy, page 35


  6. ^ Kennedy, page 23.

  7. ^ Web page at Hasbro.com with graphics for the eight new tokens.

  8. ^ "Premier Calls On Queenslanders To ‘Monopolise’ Smart State" Article on nominations for the Australian "Here and Now" edition of Monopoly from Queensland, Australia.


  9. ^ Courier Mail story on nominated landmarks for the Australian "Here and Now" edition of Monopoly.

  10. ^ Australia Monopoly home page

  11. ^ Sales page for Canadian Monopoly Here & Now Limited Edition


  12. ^ New Zealand Monopoly home page

  13. ^ http://www.monopoly.ie/index.aspx Ireland Monopoly

  14. ^ Official UK Monopoly website, with UK-wide "Here and Now Edition" voting.


  15. ^ News article from Sky News. Accessed 24 July 2006.

  16. ^ Online sales page for UK Monopoly Here and Now Banking Edition at Online Toys Australia.

  17. ^ Hasbro.com press release


  18. ^ Passing Go: Early Monopoly 1933-1937 by "Clarence B. Darwin" (pseudonym for David Sadowski). First edition, revised, pages 207-208. Folkopoly Press, River Forest, IL.

  19. ^ Ibid. Page 206

  20. ^ Details of the 2004 Monopoly World Championship, held in Tokyo.

  21. ^ Orbanes, Philip (1988). The Monopoly Companion, First edition, Bob Adams, Inc., Page 20. ISBN 1-55850-950-X.


  22. ^ Archived article from Business Wire, stored at Findarticles.com. Accessed 1 January 2006.

  23. ^ Most Expensive Monopoly Set world record.

  24. ^ a b c d e Orbanes, Philip (1999). The Monopoly Companion: The Players Guide, Second edition, Adams Media Corporation, Page 140-142. ISBN 1-58062-175-9.


  25. ^ Rayment, W.J. (2006). "Monopoly - Variations and House Rules" (English). How to Win at Monopoly. Retrieved on 2006-10-03.

  26. ^ Romer, Megan (2006). "Monopoly House Rules and Variations" (English). Retrieved on 2006-10-03.


  27. ^ Collins, Truman (1997). Monopoly Square Probabilities. Retrieved on 2006-05-28.; the page includes detailed analyses of expected income from each property and discussion of the strategic implications.

  28. ^ Brandreth, Gyles (1985). The Monopoly Omnibus, First hardcover edition, Willow Books, Page 19. ISBN 0-00-218166-5.


  29. ^ US Tournament Guide, PDF file.

  30. ^ Tournament rules for Canada, from 2003. PDF file.

  31. ^ "Fun Facts" page at Monopoly.com.

  32. ^ BoardGameGeek.com page for the original Monopoly Stock Exchange add-on. Accessed 1 January 2006.


  33. ^ BoardGameGeek.com page for the Monopoly Stock Exchange edition that came with a specialized calculator. Accessed 1 January 2006.

  34. ^ BoardGameGeek.com page for the Monopoly Playmaster electronic accessory. Accessed 1 January 2006.

  35. ^ Monopoly Live. Retrieved on 2006-05-25.


  36. ^ Late for the Sky Official Website

  37. ^ Help On Board gallery of custom created -opoly style games for communities in the United States and Canada.

  38. ^ Dogopoly Official Website


  39. ^ Story on the October 2003 lawsuit filing, from USA Today

  40. ^ Decision from the United States District Court for the District of Rhode Island, dated 18 May 2006. PDF file.

  41. ^ TDC Games' homepage for Make Your Own-opoly





References



  • Monopoly as a Markov Process, by R. Ash and R. Bishop, Mathematics Magazine, vol. 45 (1972) p. 26-29.

  • Anspach, Ralph. The Billion Dollar MONOPOLY ® Swindle, Second Edition, Xlibris Corporation. ISBN 0-7388-3139-5.


  • Brady, Maxine (1974). The Monopoly Book: Strategy and Tactics of the World's Most Popular Game, First hardcover edition, D. McKay Co.. ISBN 0-679-20292-7.

  • Darzinskis, Kaz (1987). Winning Monopoly: A Complete Guide to Property Accumulation, Cash-Flow Strategy, and Negotiating Techniques When Playing the Best-Selling Board Game, First Edition, Harper & Row, New York. ISBN 0-06-096127-9.

  • Moore, Tim (2004). Do Not Pass Go. Vintage Books. ISBN 0-09-943386-9.


  • Orbanes, Philip E. (1999). The Monopoly Companion: The Player's Guide, Second Edition, Adams Media Corporation. ISBN 1-58062-175-9.

  • Orbanes, Philip E. (2004). The Game Makers: The Story of Parker Brothers, First Edition, Harvard Business School Press. ISBN 1-59139-269-1.

Board game "Weiqi,Xiangqi,Shogi,Oware,ScrabbleLa Città, Party Co, and Monopoly"

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Board game

A board game is a game played with counters or pieces that are placed on, removed from, or moved across a "board" (a premarked surface, usually specific to that game). Simple board games often make ideal "family entertainment" since they are often appropriate for all ages. Some board games, such as chess, go/weiqi, xiangqi, shogi, or oware, have intense strategic value and have been classics for centuries.

There are many different types of board games. Many games simulate aspects of real life. Popular games of this type include:


Monopoly
  • Monopoly, which simulates the real estate market
  • Cluedo/Clue, which simulates a murder mystery
  • Risk, which simulates warfare

Other games only loosely, or do not at all, attempt to imitate reality. These games include:

  • abstract strategy games like chess, checkers or go
  • word games, like Scrabble
  • trivia games, like Trivial Pursuit.
  • combination games, like Brain Chain, which mix abstract strategy with trivia.
A shelf of board games. The left stack contains Carcassonne, La Città, Party & Co, and Monopoly. The right stack contains Risk, Drakon, and non-English editions of Trivial Pursuit, The Seafarers of Catan, and Cities and Knights of Catan.

A shelf of board games. The left stack contains Carcassonne, La Città, Party & Co, and Monopoly. The right stack contains Risk, Drakon, and non-English editions of Trivial Pursuit, The Seafarers of Catan, and Cities and Knights of Catan.

History

Senet is believed to be the oldest board game

Senet is believed to be the oldest board game

Board games have been played in most cultures and societies throughout history; some even pre-date literacy skill development in the earliest civilizations. A number of important historical sites, artifacts and documents exist which shed light on early board games. Some of these include:

  • Senet has been found in Predynastic and First Dynasty burials of Egypt, c. 3500 BC and 3100 BC respectively.[1] Senet is the oldest board game known to have existed, having been pictured in a fresco found in Merknera's tomb (3300-2700 BC).[2]
  • Mehen is another ancient board game from Predynastic Egypt.
  • Go is an ancient strategic board game originating in China
  • Patolli is a board game originating in mesoamerica and played by the ancient mayans.
  • The Royal Tombs of Ur contained, among others, the Royal Game of Ur. They were excavated by Leonard Woolley, but his books document little on the games found. Most of the games he excavated are now housed in the British Museum in London.
  • Buddha games list is the earliest known list of games.

Timeline

  • c. 5870 BC -- board game resembling mancala found at Ain Gazal Jordan. (Rollefson)
  • c. 3500 BC - Senet found in Predynastic Egyptian burials;[1] also depicted in the tomb of Merknera.
  • c. 3000 BC - Mehen, board game from Predynastic Egypt, played with lion-shaped game pieces and marbles.
  • c. 3000 BC - Ancient backgammon set, found in the Burnt City in Iran[3]
  • c. 2560 BC - Board of the Royal Game of Ur (found at Ur Tombs)
  • c. 2500 BC - Paintings of senet and han being played made in the tomb of Rashepes
  • c. 2000 BC - Drawing in a tomb at Benihassan depicting two unknown board games being played (depicted in Falkner). It has been suggested that the second of these is tau.
  • c. 1500 BC - Liubo carved on slab of blue stone. Also painting of board game of Knossos.[4]
  • c. 1400 BC - Game boards including alquerque, three men's morris, nine men's morris, and a possible mancala board etched on the roof of the Kurna temple. (Source: Fiske, and Bell)
  • 548 BC The earliest written references to Go/Weiqi come from the Zuo Zhuan, which describes a man who likes the game.เกมส์ตะกร้อ เกมทำขนมเค็ก เกม fm2008 เกมแต่งตัว สุดฮิต เกมตกปลาทะเล เกมผลไม้รวม เกมส์ปลูกพืช เกมส์แข่งรถ2 เกมส์เดินหมาก เกมธาตุ เกมส์แต่งตัว ผ่อนคลายสายตา เกมส เล่น เกมกวนๆ เกมรัก...กลกามเทพ เกมคณิต ช่วงชั้นที่ 1 เกมฟุดบอล เกมส์ chainz เกม google เกมปาเป้า เกมส์ เกมส์เเต่งตัว เกมแค้น เดิมพันรัก ost mp
  • c. 500 BC - The Buddha games list mentions board games played on 8 or 10 rows.
  • c. 500 BC - The earliest reference to Chaturaji or Pachisi written in the Mahabharata.
  • c. 200 BC - A Chinese Go/Weiqi board pre-dating 200 BC was found in 1954 in Wangdu County. This board is now in Beijing Historical Museum.[5].
  • 116-27 BC - Marcus Terentius Varro's Lingua Latina X (II, par. 20) contains earliest known reference to latrunculi[6] (often confused with ludus duodecim scriptorum, Ovid's game mentioned below).
  • 79-8 BC - Liu Xiang's (劉向) Shuo yuan, contains earliest known reference to Xiangqi.
  • 1 BC-8 AD - Ovid's Ars Amatoria contains earliest known reference to ludus duodecim scriptorum and the smaller merels.
  • 220-265 - Nard enters China under the name t'shu-p'u (Source: Hun Tsun Sii).
  • c. 400 onwards - Tafl games played in Northern Europe.
  • c. 600 The earliest references to Chaturanga written in Subandhu's Vasavadatta and Banabhatta's Harsha Charitha
  • c. 600 - The earliest reference to Chatrang written in Karnamak-i-Artakhshatr-i-Papakan.
See also: Timeline of chess

Board games first became widely popular among the general population early in the 20th century when the rise of the middle class with disposable income and leisure time made them a receptive audience to such games. This popularity expanded after the Second World War, a period from which many classic board games date.

Many board games are now available as computer games, including the option to have the computer act as an opponent; and many acclaimed computer games such as Civilization are based upon board games. The rise of computers has also led to a relative decline in the most complicated board games, as computers require less space, and the games don't have to be set up and cleared away. With the Internet, many board games can now be played online against a computer or other players. Some web sites allow play in real time and immediately show the opponent's moves, while most use e-mail to notify the players after each move (see the links at the end of this article).

Some board games make use of additional components, aside from the board and playing pieces. Some games use CDs, video cassettes and more recently DVDs to provide an accompaniment to the game. A genre of DVD games makes use of the interactive features of DVDs, often to provide a "quizmaster" for trivia games.

The modern board game industry is rife with corporate mergers and acquisitions, with large companies such as Hasbro owning many subsidiaries and selling products under a variety of brand names. It is difficult to successfully market a new board game to the mass market. Retailers tend to be conservative about stocking games of untested popularity, and most large board game companies have established criteria that a game must meet in order to be produced. If, for instance, Monopoly were introduced as a new game today, it might not meet the criteria for production.[citation needed]

Psychology

While there has been fair amount of scientific research on the psychology of traditional board games (e.g., chess, Go, mancala games), much less has been done on more recent board games such as Monopoly, Scrabble, or Risk.[7]. Most of the research has been carried out on chess, in part because chessplayers are ranked in national and international rating lists, which makes it possible to compare their level of expertise precisely. The classical works of Adriaan de Groot, William Chase and Herbert Simon have established that knowledge plays an essential role in chessplaying, more than the ability to anticipate moves. This seems to be the case in other traditional games such as Go and oware (a type of mancala game), but data are lacking with more recent board games.

Luck, strategy and diplomacy

One way to categorize board games is to distinguish those based primarily upon luck from those that involve significant strategy. Some games, such as chess, are entirely deterministic, relying only on the strategy element for their interest. Children's games, on the other hand, tend to be very luck-based, with games such as Sorry!, Candy Land and chutes and ladders having virtually no decisions to be made. Most board games involve both luck and strategy. A player may be hampered by a few poor rolls of the dice in Risk or Monopoly, but over many games a player with a superior strategy will win more often. While some purists consider luck to not be a desirable component of a game, others counter that elements of luck can make for far more diverse and multi-faceted strategies as concepts such as expected value and risk management must be considered. Still, adult game players prefer to make decisions during play and find purely luck based games such as snakes and ladders quite boring.

The third important factor in a game is diplomacy, or players making deals with each other. A game of solitaire, for obvious reasons, has no player interaction. Two player games usually do not have diplomacy, with Lord of the Rings being a notable exception where players compete against an automatic opponent (see cooperative games). Thus, this generally applies only to games played with three or more people. An important facet of Settlers of Catan, for example, is convincing people to trade with you rather than with other players. In Risk, one example of diplomacy's effectiveness is when two or more players team up against others. Easy diplomacy consists of convincing other players that someone else is winning and should therefore be teamed up against. Difficult diplomacy (such as in the aptly named game Diplomacy) consists of making elaborate plans together, with possibility of betrayal.

Luck is introduced to a game by a number of methods. The most popular is using dice, generally six-sided. These can determine everything from how many steps a player moves their token, as in Monopoly, to how their forces fare in battle, such as in Risk, or which resources a player gains, such as in Settlers of Catan. Other games such as Sorry! use a deck of special cards that, when shuffled, create randomness. Scrabble does something similar with randomly picked letters. Other games use spinners, timers of random length, or other sources of randomness. Trivia games have a great deal of randomness based on the questions a person gets. German-style board games are notable for often having rather less of a luck factor than many North American board games.

Common terms

Carcassonne tokens, or meeples

Carcassonne tokens, or meeples

Although many board games have a jargon all their own, there is a generalized terminology to describe concepts applicable to basic game mechanics and attributes common to nearly all board games.

  • Game board (or board) — the (usually quadrilateral) surface on which one plays a board game; the namesake of the board game, gameboards are a necessary and sufficient condition of the genre

  • Game piece (or token or bit) — a player's representative on the game board. Each player may control one or more game pieces. In some games that involve commanding multiple game pieces, such as chess, certain pieces have unique designations and capabilities within the parameters of the game; in others, such as Go, all pieces controlled by a player have the same essential capabilities. In some games, pieces may not represent or belong to a particular player.
  • Jump — to bypass one or more game pieces and/or spaces. Depending on the context, jumping may also involve capturing or conquering an opponent's game piece. (See also: Game mechanic: capture)
  • Space (or square) — a physical unit of progress on a gameboard delimited by a distinct border (See also: Game mechanic: Movement)
  • Hex In hexagon-based board games, this is the common term for a standard space on the board. This is most often used in war games.

References

  1. ^ a b http://www.gamesmuseum.uwaterloo.ca/Archives/Piccione/index.html
  2. ^ Okno do svita deskovych her
  3. ^ "Iran's Burnt City Throws up World’s Oldest Backgammon." Persian Journal. December 4, 2004. Retrieved on November 15, 2006.
  4. ^ http://www.gamesmuseum.uwaterloo.ca/Archives/Brumbaugh/index.html
  5. ^ John Fairbairn's Go in Ancient China
  6. ^ http://www.thelatinlibrary.com/varro.ll10.html
  7. ^ Gobet, Fernand, de Voogt, Alex, & Retschitzki, Jean (2004). Moves in mind: The psychology of board games. Psychology Press. ISBN 1841693367.

Further reading

  • Gobet, Fernand, de Voogt, Alex, & Retschitzki, Jean (2004). Moves in mind: The psychology of board games. Psychology Press. ISBN 1841693367.
  • Rollefson, Gary O., "A Neolithic Game Board from Ain Ghazal, Jordan,"

Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, No. 286. (May, 1992), pp. 1-5.

  • Fiske, Willard. Chess in Iceland and in Icelandic Literature—with historical notes on other table-games). Florentine Typographical Society, 1905.
  • Falkener, Edward. Games Ancient and Oriental, and How To Play Them. Longmans, Green and Co., 1892.
  • Austin, Roland G. "Greek Board Games." Antiquity 14. September 1940: 257–271
  • Murray, Harold James Ruthven. A History of Board-Games Other Than Chess. Gardners Books, 1969.
  • Bell, Robert Charles. The Boardgame Book. London: Bookthrift Company, 1979.
  • Bell, Robert Charles. Board and Table Games from Many Civilizations. Mineola, New York: Dover Publications, 1980. ISBN 0-486-23855-5
    • Reprint: New York: Exeter Books, 1983.
  • Sackson, Sid. A Gamut of Games. Arrow Books, 1983. ISBN 0-09-153340-6
    • Reprint: Dover Publications, 1992. ISBN 0-486-27347-4
  • Schmittberger, R. Wayne. New Rules for Classic Games. John Wiley & Sons, 1992. ISBN 0-471-53621-0
    • Reprint: Random House Value Publishing, 1994. ISBN 0-517-12955-8
  • Parlett, David. Oxford History of Board Games. Oxford University Press, 1999. ISBN 0-19-212998-8

Note that some these works may suffer from cultural bias—especially Murray's work which, despite being the standard reference, tends to assume Western cultural superiority.

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Personal computer game


A personal computer game (also known as a computer game or simply PC game) is a video game played on a personal computer, rather than on a video game console or arcade machine. Computer games have evolved from the simple graphics and gameplay of early titles like Spacewar!, to a wide range of more visually advanced titles, although the computer game market has been declining in the United States since 1999.

PC games are created by one or more game developers, often in conjunction with other specialists (such as game artists) and either published independently or through a third party publisher. They may then be distributed on physical media such as DVDs and CDs, as Internet-downloadable shareware, or through online delivery services such as Direct2Drive and Steam. PC games often require specialised hardware in the user's computer in order to play, such as a specific generation of graphics processing unit or an Internet connection for online play, although these system requirements vary from game to game.

Computer games and game addiction are often the subject of criticism, focusing largely on the influence of objectionable content and prolonged gameplay on minors. The Entertainment Software Association and other groups maintain that parents are responsible for moderating their children's behaviour, although the controversy has prompted attempts to control the sale of certain games in the United States.

Early growth


Spacewar!, developed for the PDP-1 in 1961, is often credited as being the first ever computer game. The game consisted of two player-controlled spaceships maneuvering around a central star, each attempting to destroy the other.
Spacewar!, developed for the PDP-1 in 1961, is often credited as being the first ever computer game. The game consisted of two player-controlled spaceships maneuvering around a central star, each attempting to destroy the other.

Although personal computers only became popular with the development of the microprocessor, mainframe and minicomputers have been used for computer gaming since at least the 1960s. One of the first computer games was developed in 1961, when MIT students Martin Graetz and Alan Kotok, with MIT employee Stephen Russell, developed Spacewar! on a PDP-1 computer used for statistical calculations.[3]

The first generation of PC games were often text adventures or interactive fiction, in which the player communicated with the computer by entering commands through a keyboard. The first text-adventure, Adventure, was developed for the PDP-11 in 1972.[4] By the 1980s, personal computers had become powerful enough to run games like Adventure, but by this time, graphics were beginning to become an important factor in games. Later games combined textual commands with basic graphics, as seen in the SSI Gold Box games such as Pool of Radiance, or Bard's Tale.

By the mid-1970s, games were developed and distributed through hobbyist groups and gaming magazines, such as Creative Computing and later Computer Gaming World. These publications provided game code that could be typed into a computer and played, encouraging readers to submit their own software to competitions.[5]

Industry crash


Main article: Video game crash of 1983

As the video game market became flooded with poor-quality games created by numerous companies attempting to enter the market, and over-production of high profile releases such as the Atari 2600 adaptation of E.T. and Pacman grossly underperformed, the popularity of personal computers for education rose dramatically. In 1983, consumer interest in video games dwindled to historical lows, as interest in computer games rose.

The effects of the crash were largely limited to the console market, as established companies such as Atari posted record losses over subsequent years. Conversely, the home computer market boomed, as sales of low-cost colour computers such as the Commodore 64 rose to record highs and developers such as Electronic Arts benefited from increasing interest in the platform.[6]

The console market experienced a resurgence in the United States with the release of the Nintendo Entertainment System. In Europe, computer gaming continued to boom for many years after.[6]

New genres


Increasing adoption of the computer mouse, driven partially by the success of games such as the highly successful King's Quest series, and high resolution bitmap displays allowed the industry to include increasingly high-quality graphical interfaces in new releases. Meanwhile, the Commodore Amiga computer achieved great success in the market from its release in 1985, contributing to the rapid adoption of these new interface technologies.[7]

Wolfenstein 3D, released as shareware by id Software in 1992, is widely regarded as having popularised the first person shooter genre of computer games.
Wolfenstein 3D, released as shareware by id Software in 1992, is widely regarded as having popularised the first person shooter genre of computer games.

Further improvements to game artwork were made possible with the introduction of the first sound cards, such as AdLib's Music Synthesizer Card, in 1987. These cards allowed IBM PC compatible computers to produce complex sounds using FM synthesis, where they had previously been limited to simple tones and beeps. However, the rise of the Creative Labs Sound Blaster card, which featured much higher sound quality due to the inclusion of a PCM channel and digital signal processor, led AdLib to file for bankruptcy in 1992.

The year before, id Software had produced one the first first-person shooter games, Hovertank 3D, which was the company's first in their line of highly influencial games in the genre. The same team went on to develop Wolfenstein 3D in 1992, which helped to popularize the genre, kick-starting a genre that would become one of the highest-selling in modern times.[8] The game was originally distributed through the shareware distribution model, allowing players to try a limited part of the game for free but requiring payment to play the rest, and represented one of the first uses of texture mapping graphics in a popular game, along with Ultima Underworld.[9]

While leading Sega and Nintendo console systems kept their CPU speed at 3-7 MHz, the 486 PC processor ran much faster, allowing it to perform many more calculations per second. The 1993 release of Doom on the PC was a breakthrough in 3D graphics, and was soon ported to various game consoles in a general shift toward greater realism.[10]

Many early PC games included extras such as the peril-sensitive sunglasses that shipped with The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy. These extras gradually became less common, but many games were still sold in the traditional over-sized boxes that used to hold the extra "feelies". Today, such extras are usually found only in Special Edition versions of games, such as Battlechests from Blizzard .[11]

Contemporary gaming


The high quality graphics of F.E.A.R. demonstrate the complex visual effects common in modern PC games.
The high quality graphics of F.E.A.R. demonstrate the complex visual effects common in modern PC games.

By 1995, the rise of Microsoft Windows and success of 3D console titles such as Super Mario 64 sparked great interest in hardware accelerated 3D graphics on the PC, and soon resulted in attempts to produce affordable solutions with the ATI Rage, Matrox Mystique and Silicon Graphics ViRGE. Tomb Raider, which was released in 1996, was one of the first third person shooter games and was praised for its revolutionary graphics. As 3D graphics libraries such as DirectX and OpenGL matured and knocked proprietary interfaces out of the market, these platforms gained greater acceptance in the market, particularly with their demonstrated benefits in games such as Unreal.[12] However, major changes to the Microsoft Windows operating system, by then the market leader, made many older MS-DOS-based games unplayable on Windows NT, and later, Windows XP.[13]

The faster graphics accelerators and improving CPU technology resulted in increasing levels of realism in computer games. During this time, the improvements introduced with products such as ATI's Radeon R300 and NVidia's GeForce 6 Series have allowed developers to increase the complexity of modern game engines. PC gaming currently tends strongly toward improvements in 3D graphics.เกมส์ทำขนมเค็ก เกมส์มาสไร%e เกม ซุโดกุ เกมdarkstory เกมส์18 เกมส์กาตูน เกมส์เป่ายิ้งฉุบแก้ผ้า เกมส์ อาหาร เกม เล่น เกมส์เเข่ง

Unlike the generally accepted push for improved graphical performance, the use of physics engines in computer games has become a matter of debate since announcement and 2005 release of the AGEIA PhysX PPU, ostensibly competing with middleware such as the Havok physics engine. Issues such as difficulty in ensuring consistent experiences for all players,[15] and the uncertain benefit of first generation PhsyX cards in games such as Ghost Recon: Advanced Warfighter and City of Villains, prompted arguments over the value of such technology.[16][17]

Similarly, many game publishers began to experiment with new forms of marketing. Chief among these alternative strategies is episodic gaming, an adaptation of the older concept of expansion packs, in which game content is provided in smaller quantities but for a proportionally lower price. Titles such as Half-Life 2: Episode One took advantage of the idea, with mixed results rising from concerns for the amount of content provided for the price.[18]

PC game development


Main article: Game development

Game development, as with console games, is generally undertaken by one or more game developers using either standardised or proprietary tools. While games could previously be developed by very small groups of people, as in the early example of Wolfenstein 3D, many popular computer games today require large development teams and budgets running into the millions of dollars.[19]

PC games are usually built around a central piece of software, known as a game engine,[20] that simplifies the development process and enables developers to easily port their projects between platforms. Unlike most consoles, which generally only run major engines such as Unreal Engine 3 and RenderWare due to restrictions on homebrew software, personal computers may run games developed using a larger range of software. As such, a number of alternatives to expensive engines have become available, including open source solutions such as Crystal Space, OGRE and DarkPlaces.

User-created modifications


Counter-Strike, a total-conversion mod for Valve Software's Half-Life, achieved great popularity online and was subsequently purchased by Valve.
Counter-Strike, a total-conversion mod for Valve Software's Half-Life, achieved great popularity online and was subsequently purchased by Valve.เกมอัฉริยะข้ามคืน เกมคุมทีม เกมส์ออดิชั่น ท่าเต้น เกมส์เค้ก เกมส์ pokemon เกมส์ wii เกมส์วันพีช เกมส์ทำอาหาร และ เกมส์ แต่งตัว เกมสืแข่งรถ เกมโยว

The multi-purpose nature of personal computers often allows users to modify the content of installed games with relative ease. Since console games are generally difficult to modify without a proprietary software development kit, and are often protected by legal and physical barriers against tampering and homebrew software,[21][22] it is generally easier to modify the personal computer version of games using common, easy-to-obtain software. Users can then distribute their customised version of the game (commonly known as a mod) by any means they choose.

The inclusion of map editors such as UnrealEd with the retail versions of many games, and others that have been made available online such as GtkRadiant, allow users to create modifications for games easily, using tools that are maintained by the games' original developers. In addition, companies such as id Software have released the source code to older game engines, enabling the creation of entirely new games and major changes to existing ones.[23]

Modding had allowed much of the community to produce game elements that would not normally be provided by the developer of the game, expanding or modifying normal gameplay to varying degrees. One notable example is the Hot Coffee mod for the PC port of Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas, which enables access to an abandoned sex minigame by simply modifying a bit of the game's data file.

Distribution


Physical distribution


Computer games are typically sold on standard storage media, such as compact discs, DVD, and floppy disks.[24] These were originally passed on to customers through mail order services,[25] although retail distribution has replaced it as the main distribution channel for video games due to higher sales.[26] Different formats of floppy disks were initially the staple storage media of the 1980s and early 1990s, but have fallen out of practical use as the increasing sophistication of computer games raised the overall size of the game's data and program files.

The introduction of complex graphics engines in recent times has resulted in additional storage requirements for modern games, and thus an increasing interest in CDs and DVDs as the next compact storage media for personal computer games. The rising popularity of DVD drives in modern PCs, and the larger capacity of the new media (a single-layer DVD can hold up to 4.7 gigabytes of data, more than five times as much as a single CD), have resulted in their adoption as a format for computer game distribution. To date, CD versions are still offered for most games, while some games offer both the CD and the DVD versions.

Shareware


Main articles: Shareware and Game demo

Shareware marketing, whereby a limited or demonstration version of the full game is released to prospective buyers without charge, has been used as a method of distributing computer games since the early years of the gaming industry. Shareware games generally offer only a small part of the gameplay offered in the retail product, and may be distributed with gaming magazines, in retail stores or on developers' websites free of charge.

In the early 1990s, shareware distribution was common among fledging game companies such as Apogee Software, Epic Megagames and id Software, and remains a popular distribution method among smaller game developers. However, shareware has largely fallen out of favor among established game companies in favour of traditional retail marketing, with notable exceptions such as Big Fish Games and PopCap Games continuing to use the model today.[27]

The Steam content delivery system allows users to preload games prior to their release.
The Steam content delivery system allows users to preload games prior to their release.

Online delivery


With the increased popularity of the Internet, online distribution of game content has become more common.[28] Retail services such as Direct2Drive and Download.com allow users to purchase and download large games that would otherwise only be distributed on physical media, such as DVDs, as well as providing cheap distribution of shareware and demonstration games. Other services, allow a subscription-based distribution model in which users pay a monthly to download and play as many games as they wish.

The Steam system, developed by Valve Corporation, provides an alternative to traditional online services. Instead of allowing the player to download a game and play it immediately, games are made available for "pre-load" in an encrypted form days or weeks before their actual release date. On the official release date, a relatively small component is made available to unlock the game. Steam also ensures that once bought, a game remains accessible to a customer for many years, while the traditional mediums of floppy disk and CD-ROM are susceptible to unrecoverable damage and misplacement.

Computer game genres


See also: Computer and video game genres

The real time strategy genre, which accounts for more than a quarter of all PC games sold,[1] has found very little success on video game consoles, with releases such as Starcraft 64 failing in the marketplace. Strategy games tend to suffer from the design of console controllers, which do not allow fast, accurate movement.[29]

Conversely, action games have found considerable popularity on video game consoles, making up nearly a third of all video games sold in 2004, compared to just four percent on the computer. Sports games have also found greater support on game consoles compared to personal computers.[1]

Computer gaming technology


An exploded view of a modern personal computer:  Display Motherboard CPU (Microprocessor) Primary storage (RAM) Expansion cards (graphics cards, etc) Power supply Optical disc drive Secondary storage (Hard disk) Keyboard Mouse
An exploded view of a modern personal computer:
  1. Display
  2. Motherboard
  3. CPU (Microprocessor)
  4. Primary storage (RAM)
  5. Expansion cards (graphics cards, etc)
  6. Power supply
  7. Optical disc drive
  8. Secondary storage (Hard disk)
  9. Keyboard
  10. Mouse

Hardware


Modern computer games place great demand on the computer's hardware, often requiring a fast central processing unit (CPU) to function properly. CPU manufacturers historically relied mainly on increasing clock rates to improve the performance of their processors, but had begun to move steadily towards multi-core CPUs by 2005. These processors allow the computer to simultaneously process multiple tasks, called threads, allowing the use of more complex graphics, artificial intelligence and in-game physics.[30][14]

Similarly, 3D games often rely on a powerful graphics processing unit (GPU), which accelerates the process of drawing complex scenes in realtime. GPUs may be an integrated part of the computer's motherboard, the most common solution in laptops,[31] or come packaged with a discrete graphics card with a supply of dedicated Video RAM, connected to the motherboard through either an AGP or PCI-Express port. It is also possible to use multiple GPUs in a single computer, using technologies such as NVidia's Scalable Link Interface and ATI's CrossFire.

Sound cards are also available to provide improved audio in computer games. These cards provide improved 3D audio and provide audio enhancement that is generally not available with integrated alternatives, at the cost of marginally lower overall performance.[32] The Creative Labs SoundBlaster line was for many years the de facto standard for sound cards, although its popularity dwindled as PC audio became a commodity on modern motherboards.

Physics processing units (PPUs), such as the AGEIA PhysX card, are also available to accelerate physics simulations in modern computer games. PPUs allow the computer to process more complex interactions among objects than is achievable using only the CPU, potentially allowing players a much greater degree of control over the world in games designed to use the card.[33]

Virtually all personal computers use a keyboard and mouse for user input. Other common gaming peripherals are a headset for faster communication in online games, joysticks for flight simulators, steering wheels for driving games and gamepads for console-style games.

Multiplayer


Local Area Network gaming

Multiplayer gaming was largely limited to Local Area Networks (LANs) before cost-effective broadband internet connections became available, due to their typically higher bandwidth and lower latency than the dial-up services of the time. These advantages allowed more players to join any given computer game, but have persisted today because of the higher latency of most Internet connections and the costs associated with broadband internet.

Typically, LAN Gaming requires two or more personal computers, a router and sufficient networking cables to connect every computer on the network. Additionally, each computer must have a Network Interface Card installed or integrated onto its motherboard in order to communicate with other computers on the network. Optionally, any LAN may include an external connection to the Internet.

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Online multiplayer

Main article: Online game

Online multiplayer games have achieved popularity largely as a result of increasing broadband adoption among consumers. Affordable high-bandwidth Internet connections allow large numbers of players to play together, and thus have found particular use in massively multiplayer online RPGs and persistent online games such as World War II Online.

Although it is possible to participate in online computer games using dial-up modems, broadband internet connections are generally considered necessary in order to reduce the latency between players (commonly known as "lag"). Such connections require a broadband-compatible modem connected to the personal computer through a network interface card (generally integrated onto the computer's motherboard), optionally separated by a router.

Emulation


Main article: Emulator

Emulation software, used to run software without the original hardware, are popular for their ability to play legacy video games without the consoles or operating system for which they were designed. Console emulators such as NESticle and MAME are relatively commonplace, although the complexity of modern consoles such as the Xbox or Playstation makes them far more difficult to emulate, even for the original manufacturers.[34]

Most emulation software mimics a particular hardware architecture, often to an extremely high degree of accuracy. This is particularly the case with classic home computers such as the Commodore 64, whose software often depends on highly sophisticated low-level programming tricks invented by game programmers and the demoscene.

Controversy


Popular MMORPGs such as Blizzard Entertainment's World of Warcraft are a major subject of criticism, amid concern that they encourage game addiction.
Popular MMORPGs such as Blizzard Entertainment's World of Warcraft are a major subject of criticism, amid concern that they encourage game addiction.
Main article: Video game controversy

Computer games have long been a source of controversy, particularly related to the violence that has become commonly associated with video gaming in general. The debate surrounds the influence of objectionable content on the social development of minors, with organisations such as the American Psychological Association concluding that video game violence increases children's aggression,[35] a concern that prompted a further investigation by the Center for Disease Control in September 2006.[36] Industry groups have responded by noting the responsibility of parents in governing their children's activities, while attempts in the United States to control the sale of objectionable games have generally been found unconstitutional.[2]

Video game addiction is another cultural aspect of gaming to draw criticism, as it can have a negative influence on health and on social relations and in the most extreme cases has led to death as a result of prolonged gameplay.[37] The problem of addiction and its health risks seems to have grown with the rise of Massive Multiplayer Online Role Playing Games (MMORPGs).[38]

See also


  • List of gaming topics
  • Video game controversy
  • Gaming PC

References


  1. ^ a b c Entertainment Software Association (January 26, 2005). Computer and Video Game Software Sales Reach Record $7.3 Billion in 2004. Press release. Retrieved on 2006-10-15.
  2. ^ a b Judge rules against Louisiana video game law (August 2006). Retrieved on 2006-09-02.
  3. ^ Levy, Steven (1984). Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution. Anchor Press/Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-19195-2.
  4. ^ Chronology of the History of Video Games. Retrieved on 2006-09-23.
  5. ^ "Computer Gaming World's RobotWar Tournament" (PDF), Computer Gaming World, October, 1982, p. 17. Retrieved on 2006-10-22.
  6. เกมแนวsimulation เกมส์ระบายอารมณ์ เกมส์แดนซ์ เกมส์เทพ เกมทำอาหารไทย เกมส์การ์ด เกมทำอาร เกม sim city 4 เกมส์แต่งตัวสวย เกม tumble bugs เกมส์ยิงตุ๊ด เกมส์ถ่ายรูป เกมส์นารุโต๊ะ เกมส์เนกิ เกมส์น่ากลัว เกมล์ต่อสู้ เกมพัฒนาสมอง เกมรถแขง เกมส์ action เกมส์ทำไอติม เกมมาดู เกมส์สไปเดอร์แมน เกมส์นางฟ้า เกมส์ไอ้แมงมุม เกม รถวิบาก เกมส์ยิงซูชิ เกมส์eco เกมรถแข่ เกมส์' เกมส์โหลด เกมส์ฝึกพิมพ์ดีด การลบเกมส์ n95 เกมส์h เกมps2 2550 เกม รถแข่ง เกมส์แนว รบ เกมส์ the farmer เกมส์โปรเกม่อน เกม รถแข่ง3 เกมส์มันมาก เกมส์จอดรถ เกมส์ชกมวย เกมทั่วไป เกมส์ตด เกมส์ the sims2 เกมส์เตอร์ติส เกมดารา เกม 10000 เกมส์คอปเตอร์ เกมเค้ก
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  13. เกมส์(boy) เกมจับคู่โปเกมอนส์ d4s เกมส์ลงมือถือฟรี เกมพื้นบ้าน เกมส์กุ๊ก เกมปลูกต้นไม้ เกมส์ วิทยาศาสตร์ เกมส์ม้าแข่ง เกม สันทนาการ เกม ออนไล เกมโทรศัพท์ เกมไอศครีม เกมจับผิด เนื้อหา เกมส์ ออนลาย เกมส์หมอ เกมส์ต่อจิ๊กซอ เกมส์จับคู่ไพ่นกกระจอก เกมแต่งตุ๊กตา เกมมหาสนุก เกม กระต่าย เกมต้มยำกุง
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  28. เกมดราก้อนบอล gt เกมส์ หมากฮอท เกมโปรเกมอน เกมส์ ox เกมส์มหาสนุก เกมส์สไปร์เดอร์แมน เกมส์กระบี่ เกมส์ออนไลน์ฟรี เกมส์เสิร์ฟอาหารจานด่วน เกมส์แข่งรถมอเตอร์ไซค์ เกมส์จับผิด download เกม com เกมส์แต่รถ เกมไอ้แฟรงค์ เกมส์ the sime เกมln เกมเล่นบนเว็บ เกมส์100เกมส์ เกมส์ slave เกมส์ff เกมส์ออนไรน์ เกมส์fm เกมส์ไผ่ เกมส์ บาร์บี้ เกมโดราเอม%e เกมส์ มัน มัน เกมเซ็กส์ เกมออฟไลน์
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Category: Video games