Players make their way around the Monopoly board, such as this German one.
Monopoly is the best-selling commercial board game in the world. Players compete to acquire wealth through stylized economic activity involving the buying, rental and trading of properties using play money, as players take turns moving around the board according to the roll of the dice. The game is named after the economic concept of monopoly, the domination of a market by a single provider.
It is published by Parker Brothers, an imprint of Hasbro. According to Hasbro, since Charles Darrow patented the game in 1935, approximately 750 million people have played the game, making it "the most played [commercial] board game in the world." The 1999 Guinness Book of Records cited Hasbro's previous statistic of 500 million people having played Monopoly. Games Magazine has inducted Monopoly into its Hall of Fame.
- Main article: History of the board game Monopoly
The history of Monopoly can be traced back to the early 1900s. In 1904, an inventor named Elizabeth Magie patented a game through which she hoped to be able to explain some of the economic ideas of Henry George. The original intention of the game was to demonstrate the unfairness of monopolies. Her game, The Landlord's Game, was commercially published a few years later. Magie and other interested game players redeveloped the game and some made their own sets. Magie herself patented a revised edition of the game in 1924, and similar games were published commercially. By the early 1930s a board game named Monopoly was created much like the version of Monopoly sold by Parker Brothers and its parent companies through the rest of the 20th century and into the 21st. Several different people, mostly in the U.S. Midwest and near the U.S. East Coast, contributed to the game's design and evolution.
By the 1970s, the game's early history had been lost (and at least one historian has argued that it was purposely suppressed - see below), and the idea that it had been created solely by Charles Darrow had become popular folklore. This was stated in the 1974 book The Monopoly Book: Strategy and Tactics of the World's Most Popular Game, by Maxine Brady, and even in the instructions of the game itself. As Professor Ralph Anspach fought Parker Brothers and their then parent company, General Mills, over the trademarks of the Monopoly board game, much of the early history of the game was "rediscovered."
Because of the lengthy court process, and appeals, the legal status of Parker Brothers' trademarks on the game was not settled until the mid-1980s. The game's name remains a registered trademark of Parker Brothers, as do its specific design elements. Parker Brothers' current corporate parent, Hasbro, again only acknowledges the role of Charles Darrow in the creation of the game. Anspach published a book about his researches, called The Billion Dollar Monopoly Swindle (and republished as Monopolygate), in which he makes his case about the purposeful suppression of the game's early history and development.
Rich Uncle Pennybags
- Main article: Rich Uncle Pennybags
The game's official mascot is Rich Uncle Pennybags, who first appeared on the game's Chance and Community Chest cards in 1936. Since 1985, he appears on the second "O" in the word Monopoly as part of their logo. Hasbro officially rechristened the character Mr. Monopoly in 1998.
Atlantic City version
This is the original version produced by Charles Darrow, and later by Parker Brothers. The board consists of 40 spaces containing 28 properties, 3 "Chance" spaces, 3 "Community Chest" spaces, a "Luxury Tax" space, an "Income Tax" space, "GO," "Jail," "Free Parking," and "Go To Jail." In the U.S. version shown below, the properties are named after locations in (or near) Atlantic City, New Jersey.
|Free Parking||Kentucky Avenue|
|Go To Jail|
|New York Avenue|
|North Carolina Avenue|
|Community Chest||Community Chest|
|St. James Place|
|St. Charles Place|
(Pay 10% or $200)
|Community Chest||⇐ GO|
A player who reaches the "Jail" space by a direct roll of the dice is said to be "just visiting," and continues normal play on the next turn.
Note that Marvin Gardens, a Yellow property on the above board, is actually a misspelling of the original location name, Marven Gardens. Marven Gardens is not a street, but a housing area outside Atlantic City. The housing area is said to be derived from MARgate City and VENtnor City in New Jersey (emphasis added). The misspelling was originally introduced by Charles Todd, whose home-made Monopoly board was copied by Charles Darrow and subsequently used as the basis of the design by Parker Brothers. It was not until 1995 that Parker Brothers acknowledged this mistake and formally apologized to the residents of Marven Gardens for the misspelling. Another change made by Todd and duplicated by Darrow, and later Parker Brothers, was the use of South Carolina Avenue. North Carolina Avenue was substituted for this street on the board.
Atlantic City's Illinois Avenue was renamed Martin Luther King, Jr. Blvd. in the 1980s. Saint Charles Place no longer exists, as the Showboat Casino Hotel was developed where it once ran.
Short Line is believed to refer to the Shore Fast Line, a streetcar line that served Atlantic City. The B&O Railroad did not serve Atlantic City. A booklet included with the reprinted 1935 edition states that the four railroads that served Atlantic City in the mid-1930s were the Jersey Central, the Seashore Lines, the Reading Railroad, and the Pennsylvania Railroad. Atlantic City does not have a "Water Works" — its water is piped in from the New Jersey "mainland" through two pipes.
The other versions of the game have different property names, and the prices may be denominated in another currency, but the game mechanics are almost identical. The income tax choice from the U.S. version is replaced by a flat rate in the UK version, and the $75 Luxury Tax space is replaced with the £100 Super Tax space. The same is true of current German boards, with a €200 for the Income Tax space on the board, and a €100 Zusatzsteuer (Add-on tax) in place of the Luxury Tax. An Austrian version, released by Parker Brothers/Hasbro in 2001, does allow for the 10% or $200 for Income Tax and has a $100 Luxury Tax. Free passes may be issued if owner of property is using free passes as a transaction.
In the 1930s, John Waddington Ltd. (Waddingtons) was a firm of printers from Leeds that had begun to branch out into packaging and the production of playing cards. Waddingtons had sent the card game Lexicon to Parker Brothers hoping to interest them in publishing the game in the United States. In a similar fashion Parker Brothers sent over a copy of Monopoly to Waddingtons early in 1935 before the game had been put into production in the United States.
The managing director of Waddingtons, Victor Watson, gave the game to his son Norman (who was head of the card games division) to test over the weekend. Norman was impressed by the game and persuaded his father to call Parker Brothers on Monday morning - transatlantic calls then being almost unheard of. This call resulted in Waddingtons obtaining a license to produce and market the game outside of the United States. Watson felt that in order for the game to be a success in the United Kingdom the American locations would have to be replaced, so Victor and his secretary, Marjory Phillips, went to London to scout out locations. The Angel, Islington is not a street in London but an area of North London named after a coaching inn that stood on the Great North Road. By the 1930s the inn had become a Lyons Corner House (it is now a Co-operative Bank). Some accounts say that Marjory and Victor met at the Angel to discuss the selection and celebrated the fact by including it on the Monopoly board. In 2003, a plaque commemorating the naming was unveiled at the site by Victor Watson's grandson who is also named Victor.u เกมส์ bleach เกม เย็นตาโฟ เกม winning 11 เกมส์ชินจัง เกมส์ บ้าน เกมส์ บาร์บี้ online เกมส์แต่งตัวออนไล เกมนิจา เกมก้านกล้าย เกมส์ยิงปีน เกมส์ เปลี่ยน 240 x 320 เกมส์เย็บผ้า เกมค็อกเทล เกมส์แข่งฟุตบอล เกมเครื่องบิน 747 เกมส์ขายไอศครีม
The standard British board, produced by Waddingtons, was for many years the version most familiar to people in countries in the Commonwealth (except Canada, where the U.S. edition with Atlantic City-area names was reprinted), although local variants of the board are now also found in several of these countries such as New Zealand (see Localized versions of the Monopoly game).
In the cases where the game was produced under license by a national company, the £ (pound) was replaced by a $ (dollar) sign, but the place names were unchanged.
|Free Parking||Strand (£220)||Chance||Fleet Street (£220)||Trafalgar Square (£240)||Fenchurch Street station (£200)||Leicester Square (£260)||Coventry Street (£260)||Water Works (£150)||Piccadilly (£280)||Go To Jail|
|Vine Street (£200)||Regent Street (£300)|
|Marlborough Street (£180)||Oxford Street (£300)|
|Community Chest||Community Chest|
|Bow Street (£180)||Bond Street (£320)|
|Marylebone station (£200)||Liverpool Street station (£200)|
|Northumberland Avenue (£160)||Chance|
|Whitehall (£140)||Park Lane (£350)|
|Electric Company (£150)||Super Tax|
|Pall Mall (£140)||Mayfair (£400)|
|Jail||Chance||King's Cross station (£200)||Income Tax (Pay £200)||Community Chest||⇐ GO|
|Pentonville Road (£120)||Euston Road (£100)||The Angel Islington (£100)||Whitechapel Road (£60)||Old Kent Road (£60)|
For a list of some of the localized versions, including the UK "Here & Now" edition, and the names of their properties, see localized versions of the Monopoly game.
Here and Now Editions
- United States
- The U.S. version of the "Here and Now Edition" replaces Atlantic City landmarks with legendary U.S. streets, neighborhoods and national monuments. Fans were able to vote on the U.S. Monopoly website for their favorite landmarks from 22 cities – including New York's Times Square, Chicago's Wrigley Field, Honolulu's Waikiki Beach, Bloomington's Mall of America, Beverly Hills' Rodeo Drive, Nashville's Grand Ole Opry, Phoenix's Camelback Mountain, Boston's Fenway Park and San Francisco's Golden Gate Bridge. Additionally, the votes determined where each landmark appears on the game board; the city with the most votes landing on the coveted Boardwalk spot. The railroads were replaced by airports, namely, New York's JFK, Chicago's O'Hare, Los Angeles' LAX and Atlanta's Hartsfield-Jackson. Property values have been increased, money is in higher denominations, and the Community Chest and Chance cards reflect more modern scenarios. Tokens in the new game include a box of McDonald's french fries, a cup of Starbucks coffee, a Toyota Prius, a New Balance tennis shoe, a Motorola RAZR cellular phone, an airplane, a labradoodle and a laptop. A version for Microsoft Windows based on the same board was also released on CD-ROM, produced by Encore, Inc. There is also an Atari downloadable version for cell phones.
- A German edition called Monopoly Heute (Monopoly Today) was released in 2005, with updated properties in Berlin.
- The French edition called Monopoly - Nouveau plateau was released in 2005, with updated properties in Paris.
- The Australian edition followed a nomination process similar to the American edition, though with Premiers making the nominations to Hasbro. Votes were cast to decide not only which landmarks from each state would qualify for the board but to decide the order that the states would be placed. The order from most expensive propities, to least expensive properties is: SA, WA, Vic, Tas, NSW, NT, ACT, QLD  The set was released in June 2007, voting was between January 8 - February 10 online.
- A Here and Now Limited Edition has been released in Canada around the same time as that of the US version. It includes landmarks such as Niagara Falls, Percé Rock and Yorkville.
- The Norwegian "Here and Now Edition" replaced bank notes with ATM cards, and updated prices. Fans were invited to vote for which Oslo streets were to be included in the game. The edition was released in spring 2006.
- New Zealand
- A New Zealand "Here and Now Edition" was voted on at a special website early in 2007. Voting finished on 10 February 2007, with a release date to be set in June 2007. The inital release was a success and sales are stable..
A voting poster for County Louth, Ireland
- An all-Ireland "Here and Now Edition" is currently being voted on at a special website. The results will be made public online in early October.
- United Kingdom
- In 2005, Hasbro launched the UK version of the "Here and Now Limited Edition," updating the properties and prices to reflect present-day London properties. The playing pieces were also changed to be: Mobile phone, Roller blade, Hamburger, Jumbo Jet, Racing Car, Skateboard and London Bus. This version was launched in recognition of the game's 70th anniversary in conjunction with an online version.
In 2007 it was announced that Hasbro would publish a second "Here and Now Edition", featuring UK cities, following a selection process similar to the U.S. edition, listed below.
Currently the top ten on the leaderboard are as follows -
1 - Cambridge
2 - St Albans
3 - Sheffield
4 - Exeter
5 - Dundee
6 - Stoke-On-Trent
7 - Keele
8 - Oxford
9 - Nottingham
10 - Norwich
Many well known locations are much further down the board - for example, Cardiff takes 13th place, London 14th, Edinburgh makes 27th place, and Northern Ireland's capital Belfast reaches 56th, meaning that none of the capitals of the UK's four constituent countries reach the top ten.
As well as the option to vote for major cities, there is the choice of voting for smaller towns or villages, known as wild card locations. On the board below, wild card locations are asterisked. The top 5 wild card locations are as follows -bomberman เกมส์แต่งตัวปาร์ตี้คริสต์มาส เกมส์ แต่งภาพ เกมที่มันที่สุด เกมร็อคแมน เกมส์อัฉริยะ เกมส์มือถือ n70 เกมส์นักแม่นปืน เกมแต่งตัว ออนไลน์ เกมเศษรฐี เกมสนุกเกอ เกมส์แต่งตัวอื่นๆ เกมตกผู้หญิง เกมวิ่งเเข่ง เกม เเต่งตัว เกมส์ดารก้อนบอล เกมส์ cash flow เกมแก่ผ้า เกม dot-a เกม ปาแมน เกมส์แต่งตัวสุ
1 - Keele (place number 7)
2 - Middlesbrough (place number 11)
3 - Burgess Hill (place number 12)
4 - Colchester (place number 13)
5 - Ashton Gate (place number 25 - not on gameboard)
 (all information accurate at 18:56 GMT 18th May 2007)
Keele, while being a small village of population less than 4000, managed to get high up on the leaderboard and at one point, the top position, thanks to the local university named after it. One student at the university, with help from others, rallied the student and staff population together to get Keele on the new board. The cause was called "Keele on the Monopoly Map", and e-mails quickly were being sent around the campus email system. Keele University has a combined student and staff population of just over 13,000.
- Debit Card versions
- A "Here and Now Electronic Banking Edition" was released in the United Kingdom in 2006, which includes an ATM and Visa debit cards in place of paper money. Australia and Taiwan also distribute the UK Debit Card version. A similar edition is available in Germany, France and Sweden where they are known as "Monopoly Banking," "Monopoly Electronique" and "Monopol Här & Nu-utgåvan" respectively. At the Toy Fair 2007 convention, Hasbro announced that the "Electronic Banking Edition" will appear in the United States later in 2007, along with a special DVD version. As of August 2007, the Electronic Banking Edition is available in stores.เกมส์อาบะเรนเจอร์ กำเนิดเกมส์ เกมยิงเป้า เกมเล่นง่ายๆ เกมส์rpg เกมส์สลาพ เกมส์นรสิงห์ เกมส์เดอะซิมส์ 2 เกมสนุกเกอร์ 3d เกมแต่งภาพ โกงเกมส์ sf เกมส์ออก เกมส์ยอดนิยม เกมส์คณิตศาตร์ เกมผีสิง เกมส์มิกกี้เมาส์ เกมร้าน เกมส์ยิงลูกโป่ง เกมอันตราย เกม console เกมส์ ปลูกต้นไม้ เกมส์รถแข่ง 1000เกมส์
Each player is represented by a small metal token that is moved around the edge of the board according to the roll of two dice. The twelve playing pieces currently used are pictured at left (from left to right): a wheelbarrow (1937b edition), a battleship, a sack of money (1999 editions onwards), a horse and rider, a car, a train (Deluxe Edition only), a thimble, a cannon (1937b edition), an old style shoe (sometimes known as "the boot"), a Scottie dog, an iron, and a top hat.
Many of the tokens came from companies such as Dowst Miniature Toy Company, which made metal charms and tokens designed to be used on charm bracelets. The battleship and cannon were also used briefly in the Parker Brothers war game Conflict (released in 1940), but after the game failed on the market, the premade pieces were recycled into Monopoly usage. Hasbro recently adopted the battleship and cannon for Diplomacy.
Early localized editions of the standard edition (including some Canadian editions, which used the U.S. board layout) did not include pewter tokens but instead had generic wooden head-shaped tokens identical to those in Sorry!. Parker Brothers also acquired Sorry! in the 1930s. Plastic versions of these tokens can be seen in the German Monopoly set pictured at the beginning of this article.
Other items included in the standard edition are:
- A pair of six-sided dice.
- A Title Deed for each property. A Title Deed is given to a player to signify ownership, and specifies purchase price, mortgage value, the cost of building houses and hotels on that property, and the various rent prices depending on how developed the property is. Properties include:
- 22 streets, divided into 8 color groups of two or three streets. A player must own all of a color group (have a monopoly) in order to build houses or hotels. A player can also be considered to have a monopoly by having both utilities and/or all four railroads (or stations) during gameplay. However, the utilities and railroads cannot be improved or have houses and/or hotels built on them. If a player wants to mortgage one property of a color-group, not only must any houses or hotels be removed from that property, but from the others in the color-group as well.
- 4 railways/stations. Players collect higher rent if they own more than one railway. Hotels and houses cannot be built on railways. These are usually replaced by railway stations in non-U.S. editions of Monopoly.
- 2 utilities. Players collect higher rent if they own both utilities. Hotels and houses cannot be built on utilities.
- A supply of paper money. The supply of money is theoretically unlimited; if the bank runs out of money the players must make do with other markers, or calculate on paper. Additional paper money can be bought at certain locations, notably game and hobby stores. In U.S. standard editions, the supply generally starts with $15,140. (The winner of the quadrennial Monopoly World Championship receives the same amount in United States dollars.)
- 32 wooden or plastic houses and 12 wooden or plastic hotels. (The original and the current "Deluxe Edition" have wooden houses and hotels; the current "base set" uses plastic buildings.) Unlike money, houses and hotels have a finite supply. If no more are available, no substitute is allowed.
- A deck of 16 Chance cards and a deck of 16 Community Chest cards. Players draw these cards when they land on the corresponding squares of the track, and follow the instructions printed on them.
Hasbro also sells a Deluxe Edition, which is mostly identical to the classic edition but has wooden houses and hotels and gold-toned tokens, including one token in addition to the standard eleven, a railroad locomotive. Other additions to the Deluxe Edition include a card carousel, which holds the title deed cards, and money printed with two colors of ink.
In 1978, retailer Neiman Marcus manufactured and sold an all-Chocolate edition of Monopoly through their "Christmas Wish Book" for that year. The entire set was edible, including the money, dice, hotels, properties, tokens and playing board. The set retailed for US$600.
In 2000, the F.A.O. Schwarz store in New York City sold a custom version called "One-Of-A-Kind Monopoly" for US$100,000. This special edition comes in a locking attaché case made with Napolino leather and lined in suede, and features include:
- 18-carat (75%) gold tokens, houses and hotels
- Rosewood board
- street names written in gold leaf
- emeralds around the Chance icon
- sapphires around the Community Chest
- rubies in the brake lights of the car on the Free Parking Space
- the money is real, negotiable United States currency
The Guinness Book of World Records states that a set worth US$2,000,000 and made of 23-carat gold, with rubies and sapphires atop the chimneys of the houses and hotels, is the most expensive Monopoly set ever produced.
Each player begins the game with his/her token on the Go square, and $1500 (£1500, €1500, etc.) in cash divided as follows, per the U.S. standard rules:
- 2 each of:
- $500 bills
- $100 bills
- $50 bills
- 6 $20 bills
- 5 each of:
- $10 bills
- $5 bills
- $1 bills
The British version has an initial cash distribution of:
- 2 x £500
- 4 x £100
- 1 x £50
- 1 x £20
- 2 x £10
- 1 x £5
- 5 x £1
Classic German editions (i.e., those pre-Euro) started with 30,000 "Spielmark" in eight denominations (abbreviated "M."), and later used seven denominations of the "Deutsche Mark" ("DM."). In the classic Italian game, each player receives £350,000 ($3500) in a two-player game, but £50,000 ($500) less for each player more than two. Only in a six-player game does a player receive the equivalent of $1500. The classic Italian games were played with only four denominations of currency. At least one Spanish edition (the Barcelona edition) started the game with 150,000 in play money, with a breakdown identical to that of the American version.
All property deeds, houses, and hotels are held by the bank until bought by the players. Free passes may be issued if owner of property is using free passes as a transaction.
Players take turns in order, with the initial player determined by chance before the game. The players all roll dice and whoever is the highest roller typically takes the first turn. After the first person is determined the players take turns by moving in a normal counterclockwise fashion. A typical turn begins with the rolling of two dice and advancing clockwise around the board the corresponding number of squares. Landing on Chance or Community Chest, a player draws the top card from the respective pile. If the player lands on an unowned property, whether street, railroad or utility, he can buy the property for its listed purchase price. If he declines this purchase, the property is auctioned off by the bank to the highest bidder. If the property landed on is already owned and unmortgaged, he must pay the owner a given rent, the price dependent on whether the property is part of a monopoly or its level of development. If a player rolls doubles, he rolls again after completing his turn. Three sets of doubles in a row, however, land the player in jail. During a turn, players may also choose to develop or mortgage properties. Development involves the construction, for given amounts of money paid to the bank, of houses or hotels. Development must be uniform across a monopoly, e.g., a second house cannot be built on one property in a monopoly until the others have one house. All developments must be sold before a property can be mortgaged. The player receives money from the bank for each mortgaged property, which must be repaid with interest to unmortgage.
Parker Brothers' official instructions have long encouraged the use of house rules, specific additions to or subtractions from the official rule sets. Many casual Monopoly players are surprised and disappointed to discover that some of the rules that they are used to are not part of the official rules. Many of these house rules tend to make the game longer by giving players more money. Some common house rules are listed below and many more can be found via links at the end of this article)
- Free Parking jackpot, which usually consists of an initial stake (typically $500) plus collections of fines and taxes otherwise paid to the bank. A player who lands on Free Parking wins the jackpot, which may then be reset with the initial stake (if any). The jackpot is usually put in the center of the board. Since the jackpot forms an additional "income" for players in this set of house rules, games can take a much longer time than under normal rules.
- Players in jail cannot collect rent, build houses or conduct trades. This can be combined with increasing the price to get out of jail considerably (normally to $500). Together, these rules make jail a far more significant burden than that listed in the normal rules.
- A bonus for landing directly on GO by dice roll (commonly an additional $200). This may or may not include cards that send the player to GO.
- Delayed Start: Players must pass GO (or circle the board at least once) before they can buy property.
- A bonus for rolling snake eyes (a pair of ones), often $100 or $500.
- All properties are handed out evenly to all players before the game begins, or one or two are dealt to each player. (This variation is in the official US and UK rules as a short game option.)
- In trades, players may offer "free rides" from their own properties (someone does not have to pay rent for landing on that property) as part of a deal.
House rules, while unofficial, are not wholly unrecognized by Parker Brothers. George S. Parker himself created two variants, to shorten the length of game play. Video game and computer game versions of Monopoly have options where popular house rules can be used. House rules that have the effect of introducing more money into the game have a side-effect of increasing the time it takes for players to become bankrupt, lengthening the game considerably.
Monopoly involves a substantial portion of luck, with the roll of the dice determining whether a player gets to own key properties or lands on squares with high rents. Even the initial misfortune of going last is a significant disadvantage because one is more likely to land on property which has already been bought and therefore be forced to pay rent instead of having an opportunity to buy unowned property. There are, however, many strategic decisions which allow skilled players to win more often than the unskilled.
Property square probabilities
The layout of the "special" squares on the board (that is, the non-property squares), as well as the dice-roll probabilities, mean that not all squares have an equal probability of being landed upon.เกมส์อาบะเรนเจอร์ กำเนิดเกมส์ เกมยิงเป้า เกมเล่นง่ายๆ เกมส์rpg เกมส์สลาพ เกมส์นรสิงห์ เกมส์เดอะซิมส์ 2 เกมสนุกเกอร์ 3d เกมแต่งภาพ โกงเกมส์ sf เกมส์ออก เกมส์ยอดนิยม เกมส์คณิตศาตร์ เกมผีสิง เกมส์มิกกี้เมาส์ เกมร้าน เกมส์ยิงลูกโป่ง เกมอันตราย เกม console เกมส์ ปลูกต้นไม้ เกมส์รถแข่ง 1000เกมส์ การติดเ
According to the laws of probability, seven is the most probable roll of two dice, occurring 6 out of 36 times whereas 2 and 12 are the least probable rolls, each occurring once every 36 rolls. For this reason, Park Place/Park Lane is one of the least landed-on squares as the square seven places behind it is "Go to Jail".
Also when you are in jail, you are likely to get out by rolling a double only one in every six rolls. A "Get Out of Jail Free" card can be sold to any other player.
In consequence, some properties are landed upon more than others and the owners of those properties get more income from rent. The board layout factors include the following:
- Jail: Since players are frequently directed to "Go To Jail," they will move through the purple, orange and red property groups immediately after leaving Jail. The two properties with the highest probability of being landed upon after leaving jail are the two cheaper orange properties (St James Place and Tennessee Avenue in North America, Bow Street and Marlborough Street outside North America). This makes the orange property set highly lucrative.
- Go to…: One square — Go To Jail — plus a number of Chance and Community Chest cards will cause the player to advance a distance around the board. Thus, the squares immediately following Go To Jail and the take-a-card squares have a reduced probability of being landed upon. The least-landed upon property in this situation is the cheaper dark blue property (Park Place or Park Lane) because it sits in the lee of both Go to Jail and Community Chest (the Chance directly before it would not affect its odds because it is impossible to roll a one).
- Go to (property): Several properties are blessed with Chance cards which draw players to them. St Charles Place (Pall Mall), Illinois Avenue (Trafalgar Square), Boardwalk (Mayfair), all of the railroads except Short Line (Liverpool Street Station), and both of the utilities benefit from this feature. Reading Railroad (King's Cross Station) has the fortune of having both a "go to" dedicated card plus the card advancing to the nearest railroad.
- Advance to Go: A player may be directed to the Go square by a Chance or a Community Chest card, thus lowering the probability of being landed-upon of every square in-between. The properties most affected by this are the yellow, green, and dark blue sets. It also marginally raises the probability for each square in the wake of Go, including the purple and orange sets which will be reached two or three rolls after being on Go.
- Go Back Three Spaces: This directive comes from a Chance card. A quick look at the board shows that there are three Chance squares and hence three other squares which are 3 spaces behind (one being a Community Chest space, another being Income Tax, and the third being the leading orange property). The leading orange property (New York Avenue or Vine Street) gains the most benefit from this card since the Chance square nestled amongst the red properties is itself the most landed-upon Chance square.
In all, during game play, Illinois Avenue (Trafalgar Square), New York Avenue (Vine Street), B&O Railroad (Fenchurch Street Station), and Reading Railroad (King's Cross Station) are the most frequently landed-upon properties. Mediterranean Avenue (Old Kent Road) and Baltic Avenue (Whitechapel ) are the least-landed-upon properties.เกมปัญญาอ่อน เกมส์ออนไลยมากมาย เกมจอมพลังสีม่วง เกมแอคชั่น เกมส์เสริฟอาหารจานด่วน เกมปรุงอาหาร เกมส๊ เกมส์ไพ่ออนไลน์ เกมมอไซ เกม บาบี้ เกมส์จ
Dealing and bargaining
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Much of the skill comes from knowing how to make the best use of a player's resources and above all knowing how to strike a good bargain. Monopoly is a social game where players often interact and must "deal" with each other in ways not unlike "real world" real estate bargaining. Note that the best deal is not always for the most expensive property; it is often situational, dependent on money resources available to each player and even where players happen to be situated on the board. When looking to deal, a player should attempt to bargain with another player who not only possess properties he or she needs but also properties the other player needs. In fact, offering relatively fair deals to other players can end up helping the player making the offer by giving him or her a reputation as an honest trader, which can make players less wary of dealings in the future. What is more, most people play Monopoly with the same group repeatedly. For this reason, such a reputation can have effects far beyond the game being played.
The end game
One common criticism of Monopoly is that it has carefully defined yet almost unreachable termination conditions. Edward P. Parker, a former president of Parker Brothers, is quoted as saying, "We always felt that forty-five minutes was about the right length for a game, but Monopoly could go on for hours. Also, a game was supposed to have a definite end somewhere. In Monopoly you kept going around and around." However, the problem of time can be resolved by playing with a time limit and counting each player's net worth when the time is up. In fact, tournament play calls for a 90-minute time limit. Two hour time limits are used for international play. The Lord of the Rings edition gives players the option of creating a random time limit using the included One Ring token and specialized dice.
Played strictly to the rules, many games will be effectively decided when one player succeeds in bankrupting another because the bankrupt player gives all his property to the one to whom he could not pay his debt. A player who thus gains a fistful of properties will virtually control the game from that point onwards since other players will be constantly at risk. On the other hand, if a player is bankrupted by being unable to meet his debt to the bank (e.g., a fine or tax or other debt that is not rent), then his property is auctioned off; this can open up new possibilities in a game which was evenly set or in which a lot of property sets were divided among the players.
The Monopoly Mega Edition is geared towards faster play by incorporating more squares and enabling players to build without the full color-group.
Another path to a faster ending is by a key property bargain, whether it be a very shrewd trade which sets one player up with a well-positioned set or a very rash trade where an inexperienced player gives his experienced opponent an underpriced gem. Either way, a deal which pays off for one player is most often the turning point of the game.
A third way to finish the game is to wait for all of the property to be bought. Once this has occurred, the player with the most money is victorious.
Another way is to remove the £200 bonus gained by passing "Go". This ensures that players run out of money quickly.
Some players, in an attempt to lessen the huge advantage gained by the first player to bankrupt another player, have the bankrupted player pay what he can to the player he is indebted to (including the money from mortgages), and then forfeit the properties, so that they are back on the market and open to purchase by other players.
Hasbro states that the longest game of Monopoly ever played lasted 1,680 hours (70 days).
Numerous official and unofficial add-ons have been made for Monopoly, both before its commercialization and after. Two such "official" add-ons are discussed below.
The best-known expansion to the game is the Stock Exchange Add-On, originally published by Parker Brothers in 1936 (wikibook). In the Stock Exchange add-on, the Free Parking square is replaced (covered over) with the Stock Exchange space. The add-on included three each of Chance and Community Chest cards directing the player to "Advance to Stock Exchange."
The add-on also included thirty stock certificates, five for each of the six different stocks, differing only in the purchase price (or Par Value), ranging from $100 to $150. Shares, like properties, can be considered to be tradeable material, and could also be mortgaged for half their purchase price. Shareholders could increase the value of their shares by buying up more of the same company's shares.
When a player moves onto Free Parking/Stock Exchange, stock dividends are paid out to all players with any unmortgaged shares. The amount to be paid out to each player is determined based on the number and kind of shares owned. Specifically, a player receives dividends from each stock based on the following mathematical formula:
- (purchase price of share / 10) × (number of shares owned)2
EXAMPLE: Owning one share of MOTION PICTURES (purchased at $100) pays dividends of $10. Owning two shares pays $40 ($10 x 2 x 2). Three shares pays $90 ($10 x 3 x 3). Four pays $160 ($10 x 4 x 4). All five pays $250 ($10 x 5 x 5).
The player who lands on Free Parking/Stock Exchange can also choose to buy a share if any remain – should the player decline, the Bank auctions a share off to the highest bidder. The 1936 rules are ambiguous with regards to the stock that is put up for auction, and convention has it that the winner of the auction chooses the stock to be received.
The Stock Exchange add-on serves to inject more money into the game, in a similar manner to railroad properties, as well as changing the relative values of properties. In particular, the Light Purple and Orange properties are more valuable due to the increased chance of landing on Free Parking, at the expense of the Red and Yellow groups.
The Stock Exchange add-on was later redesigned and rereleased in 1992 under license by Chessex, this time including a larger number of new Chance and Community Chest cards. This version included ten new Chance cards (five ADVANCE TO STOCK EXCHANGE and five other related cards) and eleven new Community Chest cards (five ADVANCE TO STOCK EXCHANGE and six other related cards; the regular Community Chest card "From sale of stock you get $45" is removed from play when using these cards). Many of the original rules applied to this new version (in fact, one optional play choice allows for playing in the original form by only adding the ADVANCE TO STOCK EXCHANGE cards to each deck).
A Monopoly Stock Exchange Edition was released in 2001 (although not in the US), this time adding an electronic calculator-like device to keep track of the complex stock figures. This was a full edition, not just an add-on, that came with its own board, money and playing pieces. Properties on the board were replaced by companies on which shares could be floated, and offices and home offices (instead of houses and hotels) could be built.
"Playmaster," another official add-on, kept track of all player movement and dice rolls as well as what properties are still available. It then uses this information to call random auctions and mortgages that will be advantageous for some players and a punishment for others, making it easier to free up cards of a color group. It also plays eight short tunes when key game functions occur, for example when a player lands on a railroad it will play I've Been Working on the Railroad.
On June 19, 2007, Ridley Scott announced that he was directing a comedy-thriller based on the game, featuring a variety of young actors in order to generate interest in the game. Scarlett Johannson and Kirsten Dunst have been considered so far. 
Besides the many variants of the actual game released in either video game or computer game formats, two "spin-off" computer games have been created.
Monopoly Tycoon is a PC game in the Tycoon series that makes strategy and speed into determining factors for winning the game, eliminating completely the element of luck inherent in the dice rolls of the original. The game uses the U.S. standard Atlantic City properties as its basis, but the game play is unique to this version. The game also allows for solo and multiplayer online games.
Monopoly Casino is also a PC game, simulating a casino full of Monopoly-based adaptations of various casino games (most notably, slot machines). This program was released in both standard and "Vegas" editions, each featuring unique games.
Monopoly Junior was a 1999 PC game based on the Monopoly Junior board game. It was originally available in specially-marked General Mills cereal boxes as part of a promotion with Parker Brothers, as part of the promotion, Parker Brothers released PC games based on their original games within specially-marked General Mills cereal boxes, Monopoly Junior being the most featured PC game. After its promotional phase, the game was re-released in PC-carrying game-stores.
Other Board/Dice/Card Games
Parker Brothers and its licensees have also sold several games which are spinoffs of Monopoly. These are not add-ons, as they do not function as an addition to the Monopoly game, but are simply additional games in the flavor of Monopoly.
- Monopoly Junior board game: A simplified version of the original game for young children.
- Advance to Boardwalk board game: Focusing mainly on building the most "hotels" along the Boardwalk.
- Express Monopoly card game: Released by Hasbro/Parker Brothers and Waddingtons in the UK in the 1990s, now out of print. Basically a rummy-style card game based on scoring points by completing "color group" sections of the game board.
- Monopoly: The Card Game: an updated card game released by Winning Moves Games under license from Hasbro. Similar, but decidedly more complex, gameplay to the Express Monopoly card game.
- Free Parking card game: A more complex card game released by Parker Brothers, with several similarities to the card game Mille Bornes. Uses cards to either add "time" to "parking meters", or spend the "time" doing activities to earn points. Includes a deck of "Second Chance" cards that further alter gameplay. (Two editions were made; minor differences in card art and Second Chance cards in each edition.)
- Don't Go To Jail: Dice Game originally released by Parker Brothers; roll combinations of dice to create "color groups" for points before rolling the words "GO" "TO" and "JAIL" (which forfeits all earned points for the turn).
- Monopoly Express: A deluxe, travel-able edition UK re-release of Don't Go To Jail, replacing the word dice with "Officer" dice and adding a self-contained game container/dice roller & keeper.
- Monopoly Express Casino: A gambling-themed version of the above game, that adds wagering to the gameplay.
- Main article: Monopoly (game show)
A short-lived Monopoly game show aired on Saturday evenings during the summer of 1990 on ABC. The show was produced by Wheel of Fortune and Jeopardy! creator Merv Griffin. The show was hosted by former Jeopardy! contestant Mike Reilly. Three contestants competed by answering crossword puzzle-style clues to acquire the properties on the board and money equivalent to the values of said properties (with bonuses added for getting monopolies). After the properties were acquired and players used the earned money to improve them with Houses and Hotels, a timed Monopoly Game Round was played, allowing players to earn even more money by landing on their properties and answering more word clues. When time was up, the player with the most money won the game, and then went on to play the Bonus Game. In the Bonus Game, the contestant had to choose 4 properties on the board to convert to "Go To Jail" spaces. Along with the actual "Go To Jail" space, the contestant rolled the dice up to five times (with extra rolls added for each double rolled) and had to pass GO without landing on a "Go To Jail" space. If the contestant passed GO before running out of rolls or landing on a "Go To Jail" space, they won US$25,000; however if the contestant landed EXACTLY on GO, they would win US$50,000. The show was paired on ABC with a summer long Super Jeopardy! tournament.
In North America, a variety of slot machines have been produced with a Monopoly theme. In Europe, there were also Monopoly "fruit machines," some of which remain popular through emulation. The British quiz machine brand itbox also supports a Monopoly trivia and chance game, which, like most other itbox games, costs 50p (GB£0.50) to play and has a GB£20 jackpot, although this is very rarely won.
Stern Pinball, Inc. produced a Monopoly themed and branded pinball table in 2001.
There was also a live, online version of monopoly. Six painted taxis drive around London picking up passengers. When the taxis reach their final destination, the region of London that they are in is displayed on the online board. This version takes far longer to play than board-game monopoly, with one game lasting 24 hours. Results and position are sent to players via e-mail at the conclusion of the game.
Because Monopoly evolved in the public domain before its commercialization, Monopoly has seen many variant games. Most of these are exact copies of the Monopoly games with the street names replaced with locales from a particular town, university, or fictional place. National boards have been released as well. Many of these are listed at "Localized versions of the Monopoly game". Details, including box cover art, can be seen in the "List of licensed Monopoly game boards". Over the years, many speciality Monopoly editions, licensed by Parker Brothers/Hasbro, and produced by them, or their licensees (including USAopoly and Winning Moves Games) have been sold to local and national markets worldwide. Two well known "families" of -opoly like games, without licenses from Parker Brothers/Hasbro, have also been produced.
Late for the Sky
Late for the Sky Production Company produces a huge range of Monopoly based games with similar rules and board layout as Monopoly but with a large selection of special themes. They also offer Monopoly based games based on your own theme. Major product lines of theirs include nearly sixty titles based on US college and university campuses and the City in a Box line. Late for the Sky has also licensed many of their -Opoly products to Outset Media in Canada for sales there. Outset Media has also produced further games exclusively for the Canadian market that build upon the Late for the Sky product lines.
Help On Board
Help On Board is a company that specializes in creating fundraising board games for various charities. Many of these have been made in an "-opoly" style using locales within a variety of communities in the United States and Canada. Proceeds from sales of the games go to various local causes. A gallery of images of some of these fundraising board games can be seen on their website.
Several published games are similar to Monopoly. These include:
- Anti-Monopoly, written by Ralph Anspach in 1974.
- Chômageopoly, "Unemployment Monopoly", a board game created by the Lip factory in the 1970s
- Dinosauropoly, a version using prehistoric motifs and rules.
- Dogopoly: The Game of High Steaks and Bones, created by Spahits Games in 1977 with a 25th anniversary edition released in 2002. Not to be confused with the Dog-opoly published by Late for the Sky.
- Easy Money, published by Milton Bradley, also in the 1930s.
- The Farming Game is a board game in which the goal is to run a financially successful farm, and like Monopoly the heart of the game is economics. The game's website draws comparisons to Monopoly.
- Fast Food Franchise is a board game by TimJim games which shares Monopoly's core mechanic, but through careful design guarantees that it will actually end.
- The Fascinating Game of Finance, later shortened to Finance, first marketed in 1932 by Knapp Electric, and later by Parker Brothers.
- Go For Broke, the exact opposite of Monopoly, has the players trying to spend all their money before anyone else. Bad bets at the casino, real estate, stock market, race track, and giving to the poor house lowers your account balance. This was a Milton Bradley game originally published in the mid-1960s.
- Ghettopoly, released in 2003, caused considerable offense upon its release. The game, intended to be a humorous rendering of ghetto life, was decried as racist for its unflinching use of racial stereotypes, so much that Hasbro sought and received a court ordered injunction against Ghettopoly's designer. The game and its sequel are no longer available directly from the designer's website.
- Goonopoly, Monopoly type game created at Central Queensland University, involving players to "buy" properties around Rockhampton (including the local nightclubs) by taking shots of "Goon" (cask wine) depending on the square landed on. Developed by Chris "Pieman" Janson and Brendon "Goonlover" Brooker.
- Itadaki Street, a series of board games for video game consoles from Enix.
- The Mad Magazine Game, a Mad Magazine themed board game in which the object of the game is for player to lose all their money, play is counter-clockwise, and the dice must be rolled with the left hand. Released by Parker Brothers in 1979.
- Make Your Own-opoly is a game set sold by TDC Games of Itasca, Illinois. Using a Microsoft Windows-based PC, a person can print out his or her own property cards, labels to place on the board and the box, and game currency.
- Solarquest, a popular space-age adaptation, was released by Golden in 1986.
The section could be improved by integrating relevant items into the main text and removing inappropriate items.
This section has been tagged since June 2007.
Since Parker Brothers first published and marketed the board game Monopoly in 1935, it has influenced popular culture in many ways. It has been referenced in cartoons, comic strips, novels, and comedy.
- In The Simpsons episode "Brawl in the Family", the family was playing Monopoly and Bart informs Homer that he must come up with the "rest of the money" to settle a debt. Homer states that he is "good for the rest", but Bart points out that Homer has "been in jail two times". Lisa accuses Marge of favoring Bart because he "bought" her "that house on St. James Place", while Bart states that no one else could help her, especially not Homer. This sends Homer into a rage, initiating a fight between all the family members. When the police are called, the event is referred to as "another case of Monopoly related violence..."
- Tom Lehrer paraphrased a rule about going to Jail in his song "We Will All Go Together When We Go":
- You will all go directly to your respective Valhallas;
- Go directly, do not pass Go, do not collect two hundred dollars...
- In an issue of Cracked magazine, spoofing Adolf Hitler, a variant of the game is called "Blitzkrieg," after Hitler's "lightning war" against France in World War II. As with the regular German game, the "Go" square is called "Los," and in "Blitzkrieg" you collect 200 deutschmarks, "provided all your identification papers are in order." Instead of mortgage, a title-deed card is displayed upside down "if property is surrendered to the Allies." Instead of "Jail" it uses a "POW camp"; on the board "Just Visiting" is "verboten--mach schnell!"
- In a story in the Archie comics, Archie, Betty, Veronica, and Jughead are playing. Archie lands on a property Betty owns; the lovesick Betty refuses to charge Archie rent. As the game continues, Archie and Betty are bankrupted out of the game, leaving Veronica playing Jughead, much to her dismay. In another story, Mr. Lodge plays Monopoly with business associates. Archie sees this, and Veronica shocks Archie by telling them her Daddy and the others are playing--for real property!
- In the movie One Flew over the Cuckoo's Nest, the inmates play Monopoly. One wants to put a house on a railroad space, insisting it's the station house; and also on Electric Company, saying "that's the power plant!"
- In the June 28, 2007 episode of the soap opera As the World Turns, Holden Snyder accuses Craig Montgomery of using a "Get Out of Jail Free" card.
- In an episode of The Sopranos entitled "Sopranos Home Movies", a game of Monopoly between Tony Soprano, his wife, Carmella Soprano, his sister Janice Soprano, and Bobby Baccala, a capo in the New Jersey mob, turns into a brawl after Bobby attacks Tony for insulting Janice during the game. Earlier, Bobby complains about the house rule giving whoever lands on Free Parking money collected in taxes and fees as unfair.
- In the movie Ace Ventura: When Nature Calls, Jim Carrey's character, Ace, tells a main that he "must be the Monopoly guy", because of his uncanny resemblance (bald, white hair, moustache) to the man at the center of the Monopoly board. He then proceeds to beat him up and move the man's jaw manually while saying, "Do not pass go, do not collect 200 dollars".
- In the movie ""Unaccompanied Minors"", a poster featuring the famous Monopoly phrase "Do not pass Go, Do not collect 200$" can be seen behind Charlie Goldfinch as the door to his "private room" is closed in his face. The private room being what appears to be a sort of interrogation room at the airport.
The game's Get Out of Jail Free card has become a popular metaphor for something that will get one out of an undesired situation.
- List of licensed Monopoly game boards
- Localized versions of the Monopoly game
- Monopoly (game show)
- McDonald's Monopoly
- My Monopoly
- Rich Uncle Pennybags, known as "Mr. Monopoly" since 1998. This mascot for the game was introduced with editions beginning in 1936, and began appearing on the game boxes and game boards in 1985.
- Kabel – the typeface used throughout the game board and on its logo.
- ^ In the instruction booklet that comes with the 70th Anniversary (US) Edition of Monopoly, Hasbro cites a statistic that over 750 million people have played Monopoly. Presumably even higher numbers have played traditional games, such as chess and go.
- ^ Guinness World Records page for Monopoly's (disputed) world record of Most Played Game
- ^ GAMES Magazine Hall of Fame web page
- ^ Hasbro's Monopoly History page
- ^ Kennedy, page 35
- ^ Kennedy, page 23.
- ^ Web page at Hasbro.com with graphics for the eight new tokens.
- ^ "Premier Calls On Queenslanders To ‘Monopolise’ Smart State" Article on nominations for the Australian "Here and Now" edition of Monopoly from Queensland, Australia.
- ^ Courier Mail story on nominated landmarks for the Australian "Here and Now" edition of Monopoly.
- ^ Australia Monopoly home page
- ^ Sales page for Canadian Monopoly Here & Now Limited Edition
- ^ New Zealand Monopoly home page
- ^ http://www.monopoly.ie/index.aspx Ireland Monopoly
- ^ Official UK Monopoly website, with UK-wide "Here and Now Edition" voting.
- ^ News article from Sky News. Accessed 24 July 2006.
- ^ Online sales page for UK Monopoly Here and Now Banking Edition at Online Toys Australia.
- ^ Hasbro.com press release
- ^ Passing Go: Early Monopoly 1933-1937 by "Clarence B. Darwin" (pseudonym for David Sadowski). First edition, revised, pages 207-208. Folkopoly Press, River Forest, IL.
- ^ Ibid. Page 206
- ^ Details of the 2004 Monopoly World Championship, held in Tokyo.
- ^ Orbanes, Philip (1988). The Monopoly Companion, First edition, Bob Adams, Inc., Page 20. ISBN 1-55850-950-X.
- ^ Archived article from Business Wire, stored at Findarticles.com. Accessed 1 January 2006.
- ^ Most Expensive Monopoly Set world record.
- ^ a b c d e Orbanes, Philip (1999). The Monopoly Companion: The Players Guide, Second edition, Adams Media Corporation, Page 140-142. ISBN 1-58062-175-9.
- ^ Rayment, W.J. (2006). "Monopoly - Variations and House Rules" (English). How to Win at Monopoly. Retrieved on 2006-10-03.
- ^ Romer, Megan (2006). "Monopoly House Rules and Variations" (English). Retrieved on 2006-10-03.
- ^ Collins, Truman (1997). Monopoly Square Probabilities. Retrieved on 2006-05-28.; the page includes detailed analyses of expected income from each property and discussion of the strategic implications.
- ^ Brandreth, Gyles (1985). The Monopoly Omnibus, First hardcover edition, Willow Books, Page 19. ISBN 0-00-218166-5.
- ^ US Tournament Guide, PDF file.
- ^ Tournament rules for Canada, from 2003. PDF file.
- ^ "Fun Facts" page at Monopoly.com.
- ^ BoardGameGeek.com page for the original Monopoly Stock Exchange add-on. Accessed 1 January 2006.
- ^ BoardGameGeek.com page for the Monopoly Stock Exchange edition that came with a specialized calculator. Accessed 1 January 2006.
- ^ BoardGameGeek.com page for the Monopoly Playmaster electronic accessory. Accessed 1 January 2006.
- ^ Monopoly Live. Retrieved on 2006-05-25.
- ^ Late for the Sky Official Website
- ^ Help On Board gallery of custom created -opoly style games for communities in the United States and Canada.
- ^ Dogopoly Official Website
- ^ Story on the October 2003 lawsuit filing, from USA Today
- ^ Decision from the United States District Court for the District of Rhode Island, dated 18 May 2006. PDF file.
- ^ TDC Games' homepage for Make Your Own-opoly
- Monopoly as a Markov Process, by R. Ash and R. Bishop, Mathematics Magazine, vol. 45 (1972) p. 26-29.
- Anspach, Ralph. The Billion Dollar MONOPOLY ® Swindle, Second Edition, Xlibris Corporation. ISBN 0-7388-3139-5.
- Brady, Maxine (1974). The Monopoly Book: Strategy and Tactics of the World's Most Popular Game, First hardcover edition, D. McKay Co.. ISBN 0-679-20292-7.
- Darzinskis, Kaz (1987). Winning Monopoly: A Complete Guide to Property Accumulation, Cash-Flow Strategy, and Negotiating Techniques When Playing the Best-Selling Board Game, First Edition, Harper & Row, New York. ISBN 0-06-096127-9.
- Moore, Tim (2004). Do Not Pass Go. Vintage Books. ISBN 0-09-943386-9.
- Orbanes, Philip E. (1999). The Monopoly Companion: The Player's Guide, Second Edition, Adams Media Corporation. ISBN 1-58062-175-9.
- Orbanes, Philip E. (2004). The Game Makers: The Story of Parker Brothers, First Edition, Harvard Business School Press. ISBN 1-59139-269-1.